Main Article Content


Gambier is an export product from Sumatera, Indonesia, that can be purified and utilized in cosmetic preparations. The content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of purified gambier has a potential skin protection against UV rays. The chemical content of extract is closely related to the polarity of solvent, so this study aims to analyze the effect of ethanol concentration as solvent in gambier purification on phenolic content, flavonoids, and SPF value. The ethanol concentrations for this purpose were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 96%. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were analyzed by colorimetric method, whereas the SPF value of gel was measured by UV spectrophotometer. The gel preparation was evaluated for its physical properties including organoleptic test, spreadability, adhesiveness, viscosity, pH and stability. Statistical analysis performed with one-way ANOVA at 95% confidence level. As the results, ethanol concentration significantly influenced phenolic, flavonoid content and SPF values. The highest phenolic content was obtained in purification by 50% ethanol with a value of 757.2 ± 13.1 mg GAE/g, while highest flavonoid content was achieved in 96% ethanol at 5.18 ± 0.21 mg QE/g. Ethanol concentration with highest SPF value was 96% at 27.07 ± 0.33. In the gambier gel formulation with 0.2% dose had an SPF value of 6.60 ± 0.58. The gel has good homogeneity, viscosity, and pH for cosmetic preparations but poor spreadability. The stability of the gel formulation changed after accelerated stability testing for 4 weeks


Flavonoid Gambier Phenolic Purification SPF

Article Details


  1. Ansary, T. M., Hossain, M. R., Kamiya, K., Komine, M., & Ohtsuki, M. (2021). Inflammatory molecules associated with ultraviolet radiation‐mediated skin aging. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(8).
  2. Dutra, E. A., Da Costa E Oliveira, D. A. G., Kedor-Hackmann, E. R. M., & Miritello Santoro, M. I. R. (2004). Determination of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, 40(3), 381–385.
  3. Faizin, M. A. (2023). Pengaruh variasi konsentrasi etanol pada proses ekstraksi gambir (Uncaria gambir R.) terhadap nilai Sun Protection Factor-nya (SPF) dalam sediaan gel. Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi UGM, Yogyakarta.
  4. Farmakope Herbal Indonesia II. (2017). Herbal Indonesia Herbal (Edisi II). Kementrian Kesehatan RI.
  5. FDA. (2022). Tips to Stay Safe in the Sun: From Sunscreen to Sunglasses. U.S Food & Drug Administration.
  6. Hashemi, Z., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., & Khalili, M. (2019). Sun protection factor, total phenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from iran. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 18(7), 1443–1448.
  7. Hernani, Hidayat, T., & Kailaku, S. I. (2020). Teknologi Pengolahan Dan Pengembangan Produk Olahan Daun Gambir (Vol. 4, Issue 1).
  8. Kumar, S., & Pandey, A. K. (2013). Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. The Scientific World Journal, 2013.
  9. Mansur, J. de S., Breder, M. N. R., Mansur, M. C. d’Ascençäo, & Azulay, R. D. (1986). Determinaçäo do fator de proteçäo solar por espectrofotometria. An. Bras. Dermatol, 121–124.
  10. Mauricino, A. R., & Juliana, M. P. (2013). Natural Product Extraction Principles and Applications. The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  11. Munggari, I. P., Kurnia, D., Deawati, Y., & Julaeha, E. (2022). Current Research of Phytochemical, Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Uses of Uncaria gambir Roxb.: A Review. Molecules, 27(19).
  12. Ngoc, L. T. N., Tran, V. Van, Moon, J. Y., Chae, M., Park, D., & Lee, Y. C. (2019). Recent Trends of Sunscreen Cosmetic. Cosmetics, 6(64), 1–15.
  13. Pambayun, R., Gardjito, M., Sudarmadji, S., & Kuswanto, K. R. (2007). Kandungan fenol dan sifat antibakteri dari berbagai jenis ekstrak produk gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb) Phenolic content and antibacterial properties of various extracts of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb). Majalah Farmasi Indonesia, 18(3), 141–146.
  14. Rauf, R., Santoso, U., & Suparmo, S. (2010). Aktivitas Penangkapan Radikal DPPH Ekstrak Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.). Agritech, 30(1), 1–5.
  15. Rina, A., Eff, Y., Rahayu, S. T., Saraswati, H., & Mun’im, A. (2019). Formulation and Evaluation of Sunscreen Gels Containing Mangiferin Isolated from Phaleria macrocarpa Fruits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, 9(3), 141–145.
  16. Sayre, R. M., Agin, P. P., LeVee, G. J., & Marlowe, E. (1979). a Comparison of in Vivo and in Vitro Testing of Sunscreening Formulas. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 29(3), 559–566.
  17. Stevanato, R., Bertelle, M., & Fabris, S. (2014). Photoprotective characteristics of natural antioxidant polyphenols. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 69(1), 71–77.
  18. Tambunan, S., & Sulaiman, T. N. S. (2018). Formulasi Gel Minyak Atsiri Sereh Dengan Basis HPMC dan Karbopol. Majalah Farmaseutik, 14(2), 87–95.
  19. The Commission of the European Communities. (2006). COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 22 September 2006 on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto. Official Journal of the European Union, 39–43.
  20. Wang, L. ping, & Wang, J. ye. (2014). Skin penetration of inorganic and metallic nanoparticles. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science), 19(6), 691–697.
  21. WHO. (1996). Annex 5: Guidelines for Stability Testing of Pharmaceutical Products Containing Well Established Drug Substances in Conventional Dosage Forms. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 863, 65–80.
  22. Winarti, C., Innawati, & Hemani. (2022). Physical Characteristics and UV Protection (In Vitro) of Gambier Leaf Extract Lotion. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1024(1).
  23. Xiao, W., Lei, F., Hengqiang, Z., & Xiaojing, L. (2013). Isolation and Purification of Natural Products. In M. A. Rostagno & J. M. Prado (Eds.), Natural Product Extraction: Principles and Applications (p. 0). The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  24. Yulianti, E., Adelsa, A., & Putri, A. (2015). Penentuan nilai SPF (sun protection Factor) ekstrak etanol 70% temu mangga (Curcuma mangga) dan krim ekstrak etanol 70% temu mangga (Curcuma mangga) secara in vitro menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Majalah Kesehatan FKUB, 2(1), 41–50.