Main Article Content
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has hampered the conduct of general elections in a number of countries. In the previous simultaneous regional elections in 2020, there was an increase in positive cases of COVID-19, which resulted in fatalities. This study seeks to examine the possibility of electronic voting (E-Voting) as an alternative policy to ensure safe elections during a pandemic, by examining the aspects of constitutionality, advantages, and challenges of its implementation.. This research employs a normative research methodology with a conceptual, constitutional, and comparative approach. The result shows that, from a constitutional standpoint, the protocol for implementing E-Voting is consistent with the principles of direct, general, free, confidential, honest, and fair elections mandated in the Republic of Indonesia's 1945 Constitution, and thus can be used as an alternative election policy in the future. E-voting also offer potential benefits for the democratic, efficient, and secure electoral system that can be used in the current pandemic situation. However, there are a number of obstacles to its implementation in Indonesia due to systemic flaws in e-voting, such as its security and validity, as well as the condition of voters and insufficient infrastructure in the Indonesian context.
- Al-Ameen, Abdalla, and Samani Talab. “The Technical Feasibility and Security of E-Voting.” International Arab Journal of Information Technology 10, no. 4 (2013): 397–404.
- Arfawati, Ashfi. “Keabsahan Pemilihan Kepala Desa Berbasis E-Voting Pada Pemilihan Kepala Desa Di Kabupaten Sidoarjo.” Mimbar Keadilan 14, no. 1 (2021): 84–94. https://doi.org/10.30996/mk.v14i1.4664.
- Athanasios I. Bozinis, Eleftherios Iakovou. “Electronic Democratic Governance: Problems, Challenges, and Best Practices.” Journal of Information Technology Impact 5, no. 2 (2005): 73–80.
- Bishop, Matt, and David Wagner. “Risks of E-Voting,” 2007.
- Cassan, Guilhem, and Marc Sangnier. “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité... Contaminé? Estimating the Impact of French Municipal Elections on COVID-19 Spread in France.” MedRxiv, 2020, 2020.06.24.20138990.
- Cetinkaya, Orhan. “Towards Secure E-Elections in Turkey : Requirements and Principles Deniz Cetinkaya,” n.d.
- Cetinkaya, Orhan, and Deniz Cetinkaya. “Validation and Verification Issues in E-Voting.” Proceedings of the European Conference on E-Government, ECEG 5, no. 2 (2007): 63–70.
- Emad ABU-SHANAB, Michael KNIGHT and Heba REFAI. “E-VOTING SYSTEMS: A TOOL FOR E-DEMOCRACY.” European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 21, no. 5 (2014): 267–69. https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2014-000536.
- Frenki. “ Asas-Asas Dalam Pelaksanaan Pemilihan Umum Di Indonesia Menurut Fiqh Siyasah.” ASAS: Jurnal Hukum Ekonomi Syariah 8, no. 1 (2016): 57.
- Hilbert, Martin. The Maturing Concept of E-Democracy : Vol. 6, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331680802715242.The.
- Inuwa, Ibrahim, and N D Oye. “The Impact of E-Voting in Developing Countries: Focus on Nigeria.” International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology 30, no. 2 (2015): 43–53.
- Izzaty, Risdiana, and Xavier Nugraha. “Perwujudan Pemilu Yang Luberjurdil Melalui Validitas Daftar Pemilih Tetap.” Jurnal Suara Hukum 1, no. 2 (2019): 155. https://doi.org/10.26740/jsh.v1n2.p155-171.
- James, Toby S., and Sead Alihodzic. “When Is It Democratic to Postpone an Election? Elections during Natural Disasters, Covid-19, and Emergency Situations.” Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 19, no. 3 (2020): 344–62. https://doi.org/10.1089/elj.2020.0642.
- Jayasinghe, Gayashi, and Rohan Samarajiva. “Remote Voting in a Pandemic : Options For,” no. April (2020): 1–9.
- Johnson, Jeffrey Alan. “The Illiberal Culture of E-Democracy.” Journal of E-Government 3, no. 4 (2007): 85–112. https://doi.org/10.1300/J399v03n04_05.
- Karmanis. “Electronic-Voting (e-Voting) Dan Pemilihan Umum (Studi Komparasi Di Indonesia, Brazil, India, Swiss Dan Australia),” 2020, 1–14.
- Kiayias, Aggelos. “Electronic Voting-A Brief Study of Remote Internet Voting in Estonia.” Handbook of Financial Cryptography and Security, 2010, 59–82.
- KOMINFO. “Status Literasi Digital Indonesia 2020: Hasil Survei Di 34 Provinsi,” no. November (2020): 1–90.
- Maaten, Epp. “Towards Remote E-Voting : Estonian Case.” Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Electronic Voting, 2004, 83–90.
- Mozley, Kyra. “Remote E-Voting : More than a Technical Challenge,” no. March (2021): 1–11.
- Muhammad, Tareq, Aziz Elven, and Ahmad Al-muqorrobin. “Consolidating Indonesia ’ s Fragile Elections Through E-Voting : Lessons Learned from India and the Philippines.” Indonesia Comparative Law Review 3, no. 1 (2020): 63–80.
- Näsström, Sofia. “Democratic Representation Beyond Election.” Constellations 22, no. 1 (2015): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.12123.
- Park, Myungsun, Joungha Won, Byung Yoon Choi, and C. Justin Lee. “Optimization of Primer Sets and Detection Protocols for SARS-CoV-2 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Using PCR and Real-Time PCR.” Experimental and Molecular Medicine 52, no. 6 (2020): 963–77. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0452-7.
- Prakasa, Johan Ericka Wahyu. “Peningkatan Keamanan Sistem Informasi Melalui Klasifikasi Serangan Terhadap Sistem Informasi.” Jurnal Ilmiah Teknologi Informasi Asia 14, no. 2 (2020): 75. https://doi.org/10.32815/jitika.v14i2.452.
- Purwati, Nani. “Perancangan Sistem E-Voting Untuk Pemilihan Kepala Daerah (Pilkada).” Jurnal Bianglala Informatika 3, no. 1 (2015): 18–27.
- Ramadani, By Rizki. “The Needed But Unwanted Independent Regulatory Agencies: Asking Their Legitimacy And Control In Indonesia,” 2020.
- Ramadani, Rizki, and Farah Syah Rezah. “Regional Head Election During COVID-19 Pandemic: The Antinomy in the Government Policies.” Yuridika 36, no. 1 (2021): 213. https://doi.org/10.20473/ydk.v36i1.23528.
- Risnanto, Slamet, Yahaya Bin, Abd Rahim, and Nanna Suryana Herman. “Success Implementation of E-Voting Technology In Various Countries : A Review,” 2020, 150–55.
- Risnanto, Slamet, Yahaya Bin Abd Rahim, Nanna Suryana Herman, and A. Abdurrohman. “E-Voting Readiness Mapping for General Election Implementation.” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 98, no. 20 (2020): 3280–90.
- Rizki Ramadani, Yuli Adha Hamzah, Arianti Anggraeni Mangerengi. “Indonesia’s Legal Policy During Covid-19 Pandemic: Between The Right To Education And Public Health” 6, no. 1 (2021): 125–56.
- Sanjay Kumar, Dr. Ekta Walia. “Analysis of Electronic Voting System in Various Countries.” International Journal of Computer Science Engineering 3, no. 5 (2011): 1825–30.
- Shum, Buckingham, Allen H Dutoit, Raymond McCall, Ivan Mistrik, Simon J Buckingham Shum, Albert M Selvin, Maarten Sierhuis, Jeffrey Conklin, Charles B Haley, and Bashar Nuseibeh. “How to Cite: Hypermedia Support for Argumentation-Based Rationale: 15 Years on from GIBIS and QOC.” PaechComputer Science Edi-Torial, 2006.
- Taniady, Vicko, Brillian Aditya Prawira Arafat, and Hari Sutra Disemadi. “Sistem E-Voting Dalam Pemilihan Kepala Daerah 2020 Saat Pandemi Covid-19: Perbandingan Indonesia, Australia Dan Brazil.” Ekspose: Jurnal Penelitian Hukum Dan Pendidikan 19, no. 2 (2020): 1055–64.
- Tanya, Bernard L., Yoan N. Simanjuntak dan Markus Y. Hage. Teori Hukum Strategi Tertib Manusia Lintas Ruang Dan Generasi. Yogyakarta: Genta Publishing, 2010.
- www.electionguide.org. “Upcoming Election.” https://www.electionguide.org/elections/?inst=Assembly&cont=&yr=2019, 2019.
- Zafar, Ch Naveed, and Anthony Pilkjaer. “E-Voting in Pakistan.” Systems Science, 2007, 111.