Main Article Content
This study evaluates the macrostructure, microstructure, hardness, and tensile strength in dissimilar metal welding applied to bus body construction. The process involved joining hollow stainless steel and galvanized steel at the dimensions of 80 x 40 x 3.2 mm through Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The current was varied at 90, 100, and 110 A while ER70S-6 electrodes with diameters of 0.8 and 1.0 mm were used. The results showed that electrode diameter and welding current affect the capping area, penetration depth, and hardness. Moreover, the formation of the widmasatten ferrite phase was increased and the coarse grain boundaries in the weld zone were detected. It was also observed that an increase in the diameter of the electrode and the welding current which indicates an increment in the heat reduced the rate of solidification and cooling. The average tensile strength for all the samples investigated was found to be lower than the value for the base metal. Therefore, further research is recommended to improve the tensile strength.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- D. W. Karmiadji, M. Gozali, M. Setiyo, T. Raja, and T. A. Purnomo, “Comprehensive Analysis of Minibuses Gravity Center: A Post-Production Review for Car Body Industry,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 2021, doi: 10.31603/mesi.5250.
- G. Refiadi, I. S. Aisyah, and J. P. Siregar, “Trends in lightweight automotive materials for improving fuel efficiency and reducing carbon emissions,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 78–90, 2019, doi: 10.31603/ae.v2i3.2984.
- U. Dilthey and L. Stein, “Multimaterial car body design: challenge for welding and joining,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 135–142, Mar. 2006, doi: 10.1179/174329306X85967.
- N. T. Switzner and Z. Yu, “Austenitic Stainless Steel Cladding Interface Microstructures Evaluated for Petrochemical Applications,” Welding Journal, vol. 98, p. 50s, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.29391/2019.98.004.
- J. Wang, M. Lu, L. Zhang, W. Chang, L. Xu, and L. Hu, “Effect of welding process on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar weld joints between low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel,” International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 518–524, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s12613-012-0589-z.
- A. M., C. Das Vemulapalli, and M. Cheepu, “Effect of filler materials on dissimilar TIG welding of Inconel 718 to high strength steel,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 52, pp. 1314–1320, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.061.
- C. H. Kuo, K. H. Tseng, and C. P. Chou, “Effect of Activated TIG Flux on Performance of Dissimilar Welds between Mild Steel and Stainless Steel,” Key Engineering Materials, vol. 479, pp. 74–80, 2011, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.479.74.
- M. Sireesha, V. Shankar, S. K. Albert, and S. Sundaresan, “Microstructural features of dissimilar welds between 316LN austenitic stainless steel and alloy 800,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 2000, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(00)00969-2.
- S. Chowdhury et al., “Comparison of microstructure and mechanical performance of laser and electron beam welded Ti6Al4V alloy,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 173, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s40430-021-02903-y.
- P. Boobalakrishnan et al., “Thermal management of metal roof building using phase change material (PCM),” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 47, pp. 5052–5058, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.012.
- K. B. Prakash, C. Subramaniayan, M. Chandrasekaran, P. Manoj Kumar, and S. Saravanakumar, “Development of mathematical model to study the effect of indoor air quality parameters and optimization using response surface methodology,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, pp. 8195–8198, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.03.087.
- V. García-García, “Microstructural and mechanical analysis of double pass dissimilar welds of twinning induced plasticity steel to austenitic/duplex stainless steels,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 198, p. 104665, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2022.104665.
- A. K. Maurya, C. Pandey, and R. Chhibber, “Dissimilar welding of duplex stainless steel with Ni alloys: A review,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 192, p. 104439, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2021.104439.
- S. Tathgir, D. W. Rathod, and A. Batish, “Emphasis of Weld Time, Shielding Gas and Oxygen Content in Activated Fluxes on the Weldment Microstructure,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 86–95, 2021.
- M. Jafarzadegan, A. H. Feng, A. Abdollah-zadeh, T. Saeid, J. Shen, and H. Assadi, “Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel,” Materials Characterization, vol. 74, pp. 28–41, 2012, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2012.09.004.
- Z. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Sun, B. Yang, L. Xiong, and H. Liu, “Study on microstructure and properties of laser dissimilar welded joints of ultra-high strength PHS1500/PHS2000 steel,” Optics & Laser Technology, vol. 150, p. 107933, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2022.107933.
- J. Xin et al., “The microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar laser welding of copper and 316L stainless steel with Ni interlayer,” Cryogenics, vol. 118, p. 103344, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2021.103344.
- T. E. Abioye, O. E. Ariwoola, T. I. Ogedengbe, P. K. Farayibi, and O. O. Gbadeyan, “Effects of Welding Speed on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Gas Metal Arc Weld Joints of AISI 304 Stainless Steel and Low Carbon Steel,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 17, pp. 871–877, 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.06.383.
- M. Vahman, M. Shamanian, M. A. Golozar, A. Jalali, M. A. Sarmadi, and J. Kangazian, “The Effect of Welding Heat Input on the Structure–Property Relationship of a New Grade Super Duplex Stainless Steel,” steel research international, vol. 91, no. 1, p. 1900347, Jan. 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.201900347.
- M. Ramarao, M. F. L. King, A. Sivakumar, V. Manikandan, M. Vijayakumar, and R. Subbiah, “Optimizing GMAW parameters to achieve high impact strength of the dissimilar weld joints using Taguchi approach,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 50, pp. 861–866, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.06.137.
- U. S. Patil and M. S. Kadam, “Microstructural analysis of SMAW process for joining stainless steel 304 with mild steel 1018 and parametric optimization by using response surface methodology,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 44, pp. 1811–1815, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.008.
- A. Gullino, P. Matteis, and F. D’Aiuto, “Review of aluminum-to-steel welding technologies for car-body applications,” Metals, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 315, 2019.
- ISO 5817, “International Standard ISO (Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel , nickel , titanium and their alloys),” vol. 2014, 2014.
- C. Steel, Cobelco Welding Handbook. Cobelco welding of America Inc, USA, 1991.
- W. D. Callister and J. Wiley, Materials Science.
- S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy, Second Edi. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.
- ASTM E112, “Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size 1,” Annual Book of ASTM Standard, pp. 1–27, 2021, doi: 10.1520/E0112-12.1.4.
- ASTM E8, “Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4, no. C, pp. 1–27, 2010, doi: 10.1520/E0008.
- R. Demarque, E. P. Santos, R. S. Silva, and J. A. De Castro, “Evaluation of the effect of the thermal cycle on the characteristics of welded joints through the variation of the heat input of the austhenitic AISI 316L steels by the GMAW process,” Science and Technology of Materials, vol. 30, pp. 51–59, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.stmat.2018.09.001.
- N. Ghosh, P. K. Pal, and G. Nandi, “Parametric Optimization of MIG Welding on 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel by Grey-based Taguchi Method,” Procedia Technology, vol. 25, pp. 1038–1048, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2016.08.204.
- H. Pouraliakbar, M. Hamedi, A. Hossein, and A. Nazari, “Designing of CK45 Carbon Steel and AISI 304 Stainless Steel Dissimilar Welds,” vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 106–114, 2014.
- N. Switzner, H. Queiroz, J. Duerst, and Z. Yu, “Si-bronze to 304 stainless steel GTA weld fusion zone microstructure and mechanical properties,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 709, pp. 55–64, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.09.025.
- K. Easterling, Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding, 2 nd. Oxford: Butterworth Heinmann Ltd., 1992.
- E. K. Hamd, A. S. Alwan, and I. K. Irthiea, “Study the Effect of Welding Heat Input on the Microstructure, Hardness, and Impact Toughness of AISI 1015 Steel,” Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 118–127, 2018, doi: 10.22153/https://doi.org/10.22153/kej.2018.08.005.
- H. Tasalloti Kashani, M. Dabiri, P. Kah, and J. Martikainen, “Effect of GMAW Heat Input on the Microstructure and Mechanical and Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Welds of Ultrahigh Strength Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel,” 2017, doi: 10.1115/OMAE2017-62646.
- B. R. Chandra, S. Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Effect of Electrode Diameter and Input Current on Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Heat Distribution Parameters,” Procedia Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 2369–2375, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.481.
- P. Shreyas, B. Panda, and R. Kumar, “Mechanical properties and microstructure of 316L-galvanized steel weld,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 23, pp. 600–607, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.05.418.
- I. C. Okafor, R. J. O. Malley, K. R. Prayakarao, and H. A. Aglan, “Effect of Zinc Galvanization on the Microstructure and Fracture Behavior of Low and Medium Carbon Structural Steels,” Engineering, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 656–666, 2013.
- M. Sarpe, K. Treutler, V. Wesling, P. Dewald, and H. C. Schmale, “Influence of classified pore contents on the quasi-static and cyclic strength properties of the welded joint in gas-shielded metal arc welding of galvanized, high-strength steels,” Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, vol. 5, no. December 2021, p. 100094, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.jajp.2021.100094.
- E. He et al., “Effect of porosities on tensile properties of laser-welded Al-Li alloy: an experimental and modelling study,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 659–671, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s00170-017-1175-3.
- M. Takenouchi and T. Shimizu, “Arc welding of surface treated steel plates,” Welding International, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 351–355, Jan. 1992, doi: 10.1080/09507119209548201.
- S. Izutani, K. Yamazaki, and R. Suzuki, “New welding process, ‘j-SolutionTM Zn,’ suitable for galvanized steel in the automotive industry,” R and D: Research and Development Kobe Steel Engineering Reports, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 54–59, 2013.
- H. Matsui, H. Suzuki, and M. Yamada, “Reduction of blowholes in high-speed arc welding of hot-dip galvanised steel sheets,” Welding International, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 432–439, Jan. 1998, doi: 10.1080/09507119809448511.