Main Article Content
The performance of calcium carbide residue in reducing two-wheel exhaust emissions has been studied. To perform this experiment, the carbide residue was first converted into adsorbent and then mounted in the exhaust gas line. Two-wheeler used are vehicles commonly used among Indonesian motorcyclists. The test was carried out by varying the adsorbent dimensions and engine transmission. Engine emission tests and adsorbent performance investigations were performed both before and after the exhaust emissions made contact with the adsorbent. The results showed that upon direct contact with the carbide adsorbent, the emission of two-wheeled engines decreased. Carbon-based emissions were reduced significantly in the early stages of the experiment. Moreover, emissions reduction benefits are seen in all adsorbent and transmission engine configurations. The greater the adsorbent's surface area, the better the emission reduction. A significant emissions reduction is also achieved when the first engine transmission condition is applied compared to the neutral transmission. However, the adsorption efficacy declined over time in all research variations. The presence of channels and pores in the adsorbent, and the high temperature attained by the adsorbent, keep improving the adsorbent's adsorption capabilities. However, as saturation increases, the adsorbent's adsorption, and oxidation capability decline.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- F. B. Elehinafe, Y. J. Hassan, Q. E. Ebong-Bassey, and A. J. Adesanmi, “A Review on the Disposal Methods with Intrinsic Environmental and Economic Impacts of Scrap Tyres in Nigeria,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.5634.
- S. Sunaryo, P. A. Sesotyo, E. Saputra, and A. P. Sasmito, “Performance and Fuel Consumption of Diesel Engine Fueled by Diesel Fuel and Waste Plastic Oil Blends: An Experimental Investigation,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2021, doi: 10.31603/ae.3692.
- S. Mujiarto, B. Sudarmanta, H. Fansuri, and A. R. Saleh, “Comparative Study of Municipal Solid Waste Fuel and Refuse Derived Fuel in the Gasification Process Using Multi Stage Downdraft Gasifier,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 2021, doi: 10.31603/ae.4625.
- M. A. Karim, S. Nasir, S. A. Rachman, and Novia, “Reduction of iron (II) ions in synthetic acidic wastewater containing ferro sulphate using calcium carbide residu,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2085, no. March, 2019, doi: 10.1063/1.5095003.
- W. Li and Y. Yi, “Use of carbide slag from acetylene industry for activation of ground granulated blast-furnace slag,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 238, p. 117713, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117713.
- P. Ramasamy, A. Periathamby, and S. Ibrahim, “Carbide sludge management in acetylene producing plants by using vacuum filtration,” Waste Management and Research, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 536–540, 2002, doi: 10.1177/0734242X0202000607.
- M. H. Al-Sayed, I. M. Madany, W. al-Khaja, and A. Darwish, “Properties of asphaltic paving mixes containing hydrated lime waste,” Waste Management & Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 183–194, 1992, doi: 10.1177/0734242X9201000206.
- T. Phoo-ngernkham et al., “Low cost and sustainable repair material made from alkali-activated high-calcium fly ash with calcium carbide residue,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 247, p. 118543, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118543.
- N. Makaratat, C. Jaturapitakkul, C. Namarak, and V. Sata, “Effects of binder and CaCl2 contents on the strength of calcium carbide residue-fly ash concrete,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 436–443, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.12.004.
- S. Susanti, S. Nasir, H. Hermansyah, and A. Mataram, “Treatment of Wastewater from Rubber Industry Using Calcium Carbide Residue Adsorbent and Hybrid Membrane UF – RO,” Sriwijaya Journal of Environment, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 2019, doi: 10.22135/sje.2019.4.1.37.
- L. Wu et al., “Study on Preparation and Performance of Calcium Carbide Slag Foam for Coal Mine Disaster Reduction and CO2 Storage,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 606, no. July, p. 125322, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.125322.
- W. Li et al., “Adsorptive Desulfurization of Diesel Oil by Alkynyl Carbon Materials Derived from Calcium Carbide and Polyhalohydrocarbons,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 9035–9042, 2017, doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01295.
- J. Saleem, U. Bin Shahid, M. Hijab, H. Mackey, and G. McKay, “Production and applications of activated carbons as adsorbents from olive stones,” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 775–802, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s13399-019-00473-7.
- S. K. Basha, N. V. Narasimha Rao, M. Shaik, and B. Stalin, “Performance analysis and control of NOx emissions in diesel engine using on-board acetylene gas from calcium carbide,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 33, no. xxxx, pp. 4887–4892, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.08.439.
- M. Anbia and Z. Parvin, “Desulfurization of fuels by means of a nanoporous carbon adsorbent,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 641–647, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.cherd.2010.09.014.
- P. Sakthivel, K. A. Subramanian, and R. Mathai, “Comparative studies on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with gasoline and 30% ethanol-gasoline blend using chassis dynamometer,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 146, pp. 726–737, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.10.035.
- P. Sakthivel, K. A. Subramanian, and R. Mathai, “Experimental study on unregulated emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with ethanol-gasoline blends (E0 to E50),” Fuel, vol. 262, no. August 2019, p. 116504, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116504.
- T. Mukesh, N. S.-R. J. of Engineering, and undefined 2012, “Reduction of Pollutant Emission from Two-wheeler Automobiles using Nano-particle as a Catalyst,” Academia.Edu, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 32–37, 2012.
- A. Granados-Pichardo, F. Granados-Correa, V. Sánchez-Mendieta, and H. Hernández-Mendoza, “New CaO-based adsorbents prepared by solution combustion and high-energy ball-milling processes for CO2 adsorption: Textural and structural influences,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 171–183, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.005.
- Y. Jung, Y. D. Pyo, J. Jang, G. C. Kim, C. P. Cho, and C. Yang, “NO, NO2 and N2O emissions over a SCR using DOC and DPF systems with Pt reduction,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 369, no. 2, pp. 1059–1067, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2019.03.137.
- M. Mehregan and M. Moghiman, “Experimental investigation of the distinct effects of nanoparticles addition and urea-SCR after-treatment system on NOx emissions in a blended-biodiesel fueled internal combustion engine,” Fuel, vol. 262, no. November, p. 116609, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116609.
- O. Chiavola, G. Chiatti, and N. Sirhan, “Impact of particulate size during deep loading on DPF management,” Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol. 9, no. 15, 2019, doi: 10.3390/app9153075.
- H. Chen et al., “Entropy-stabilized metal oxide solid solutions as CO oxidation catalysts with high-temperature stability,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 6, no. 24, pp. 11129–11133, 2018, doi: 10.1039/c8ta01772g.
- S. Sinha Majumdar, J. A. Pihl, and T. J. Toops, “Reactivity of novel high-performance fuels on commercial three-way catalysts for control of emissions from spark-ignition engines,” Applied Energy, vol. 255, p. 113640, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113640.
- R. Feng, X. Hu, G. Li, Z. Sun, and B. Deng, “A comparative investigation between particle oxidation catalyst (POC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) coupling aftertreatment system on emission reduction of a non-road diesel engine,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 238, no. June, pp. 1–34, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113576.
- G. Wu et al., “Cobalt oxide with flake-like morphology as efficient passive NOx adsorber,” Catalysis Communications, vol. 149, no. October 2020, p. 106203, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.catcom.2020.106203.
- A. Joshi and T. V. Johnson, “Gasoline Particulate Filters — a Review,” Emission Control Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 219–239, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s40825-018-0101-y.
- H. S. Tira et al., “Influence of Fuel Properties, Hydrogen, and Reformate Additions on Diesel-Biogas Dual-Fueled Engine,” Journal of Energy Engineering, vol. 140, no. 3, 2014, doi: 10.1061/(asce)ey.1943-7897.0000173.
- PT Pertamina, “Material Safety Data Sheet Premium RON 88 PT. Pertamina,” in PT Pertamina, no. 2007, 2007, pp. 1–9.
- G. Senthilkumar, J. B. Sajin, D. Yuvarajan, and T. Arunkumar, “Evaluation of emission, performance and combustion characteristics of dual fuelled research diesel engine,” Environmental Technology (United Kingdom), vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 711–718, 2020, doi: 10.1080/09593330.2018.1509888.
- P. Wu et al., “Cooperation of Ni and CaO at Interface for CO2 Reforming of CH4: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study,” ACS Catalysis, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 10060–10069, 2019, doi: 10.1021/acscatal.9b02286.
- J. A. Medrano et al., “CO selective oxidation using catalytic zeolite membranes,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 351, no. December 2017, pp. 40–47, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.06.084.
- M. J. Morrison and G. A. Kopp, “Effects of turbulence intensity and scale on surface pressure fluctuations on the roof of a low-rise building in the atmospheric boundary layer,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 183, no. October, pp. 140–151, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2018.10.017.
- X. K. Zhang, Z. X. Tong, D. Li, X. Hu, and Y. L. He, “Analysis and optimization about electromagnetics-temperature-component distribution in calcium carbide electric furnace,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 185, p. 115980, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.115980.
- X. Li et al., “Influence of ZrO2 crystal structure on the catalytic performance of Fe-Ni catalysts for CO2-assisted ethane dehydrogenation reaction,” Fuel, vol. 322, no. August, pp. 15–17, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2022.124122.
- I. A. Abdalfattah, W. S. Mogawer, and K. Stuart, “Quantification of the degree of blending in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 294, p. 126261, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126261.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, I. N. G. Wardana, N. Hamidi, L. Yuliati, and T. Ueda, “The effect of Rh3+ catalyst on the combustion characteristics of crude vegetable oil droplets,” Fuel, vol. 220, pp. 220–232, 2018.
- A. Monshi, M. R. Foroughi, and M. R. Monshi, “Modified Scherrer Equation to Estimate More Accurately Nano-Crystallite Size Using XRD,” World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, vol. 02, no. 03, pp. 154–160, 2012, doi: 10.4236/wjnse.2012.23020.