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Finding possible solutions where there are multiple conflicting objectives to be simultaneously satisfied is a challenging situation. Multi-objective optimisation of a rear spoiler on a generic road vehicle model is carried out by using adjoint-based optimisation coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics. The study aims to reduce the vehicle drag and increase vehicle downforce simultaneously by optimising the shape of the spoiler, by allowing the deformation to achieve the most optimised shape assuming no manufacturing constraint. The OpenFOAM software was used for the solver. A strategy for multi-objective optimisation was proposed by assigning appropriate objective function weight, leading to some possible solutions and Pareto front of the proposed design family. Five optimisation solutions of the non-dominated solution Pareto front resulting from the spoiler shape optimisation are presented, explaining the trade-off between conflicting drag and downforce objectives on the vehicle model. The baseline geometry of the simulation is in good agreement with the experimental measurement. The analysis of the shape changes in the proposed optimisation is deeply investigated in terms of the optimised geometry deformation, velocity contour comparison, recirculating region on the base, pressure coefficient comparison and stream-wise velocity component at the slant region of the model. The adjoint-based optimisation method in the presence study can handle multiple objective optimisations and generate possible optimised spoiler shapes to reduce drag and increase downforce. Free deformation of the shape yields in the unique shapes of the spoiler, enabling to manipulate of the base flow at the rear of the vehicle model.


Adjoint Multi-objective optimization Ahmed body Spoiler Aerodynamics

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