Main Article Content


Global emission of gases has increased rapidly due to higher combustion of fossil fuels arising from increasing world population which has led to a greater number of manufacturing industries and ‘on-road vehicle (ORV)’ users. Researchers have attributed cause of global warming to gases emissions which correspondingly lead to climate change with devastating repercussions. Currently, climate change is a general issue and world leaders have been tasked to cut down emissions of gases that directly affect the ecosystem and influence climate change. Biodiesel which is an alternative to fossil fuels face many challenges and to tackle some limitations with biodiesel researchers blends biodiesels in various proportional ratio to diesel fuel. This paper, therefore, concentrates on reviewing the use of additives specifically nano-additives by researchers recently to alter and boost desired characteristics in diesel-biodiesel fuel; it also examines the synthesis of nano-additives; challenges, and advances made. This paper further analysed, reviewed, and compared recent results from nano-additive use with respect to emissions, fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and engine power, establishes the merits and demerits of diverse nano-additives, and finally presents a conclusive opinion on nano-additive usage with diesel fuels in diesel engines.


Biodiesel Diesel Emissions Nano-additive Efficiency

Article Details


  1. W. S. Ebhota and T.-C. Jen, “Fossil fuels environmental challenges and the role of solar photovoltaic technology advances in fast tracking hybrid renewable energy system,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 97–117, 2020.
  2. D. Gielen, F. Boshell, D. Saygin, M. D. Bazilian, N. Wagner, and R. Gorini, “The role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation,” Energy Strategy Reviews, vol. 24, pp. 38–50, 2019.
  3. I. Veza, M. F. M. Said, and Z. A. Latiff, “Recent advances in butanol production by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 144, p. 105919, 2021.
  4. M. Nour, A. M. A. Attia, and S. A. Nada, “Combustion, performance and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled by higher alcohols (butanol, octanol and heptanol)/diesel blends,” Energy conversion and management, vol. 185, pp. 313–329, 2019.
  5. R. L. Oliveira, L. Varandas, and G. Arbilla, “Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex located in a densely populated area of the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2014.
  6. A. K. Agarwal, “Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines,” Progress in energy and combustion science, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 233–271, 2007.
  7. S. Ganesan, S. Padmanabhan, S. Mahalingam, and C. Shanjeevi, “Environmental impact of VCR diesel engine characteristics using blends of cottonseed oil with nano additives,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 761–772, 2020.
  8. I. Veza, M. F. M. Said, and Z. A. Latiff, “Progress of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) as biofuel in gasoline and diesel engine: A review,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 196, p. 106179, 2019.
  9. J. Nagi, S. K. Ahmed, and F. Nagi, “Palm biodiesel an alternative green renewable energy for the energy demands of the future,” in International Conference on Construction and Building Technology, ICCBT, 2008, pp. 79–94.
  10. D. J. Tenenbaum, “Food vs. fuel: diversion of crops could cause more hunger.” National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2008.
  11. F. Meng, X. Yu, L. He, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Study on combustion and emission characteristics of a n-butanol engine with hydrogen direct injection under lean burn conditions,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 7550–7561, 2018.
  12. J. Yadav and A. Ramesh, “Injection strategies for reducing smoke and improving the performance of a butanol-diesel common rail dual fuel engine,” Applied energy, vol. 212, pp. 1–12, 2018.
  13. T. Su, C. Ji, S. Wang, X. Cong, L. Shi, and J. Yang, “Improving the lean performance of an n-butanol rotary engine by hydrogen enrichment,” Energy conversion and management, vol. 157, pp. 96–102, 2018.
  14. D. Khatiwada, S. Leduc, S. Silveira, and I. McCallum, “Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil,” Renewable Energy, vol. 85, pp. 371–386, 2016.
  15. M. L. Lopes et al., “Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry,” brazilian journal of microbiology, vol. 47, pp. 64–76, 2016.
  16. D. Golke, J. L. S. Fagundez, N. P. G. Salau, and M. E. S. Martins, “Combustion performance of n-butanol, hydrous ethanol and their blends as potential surrogates for the Brazilian gasoline,” SAE Technical Paper, 2016.
  17. L. Caspeta, N. A. A. Buijs, and J. Nielsen, “The role of biofuels in the future energy supply,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1077–1082, 2013.
  18. S. R. Golisz, J. S. Yang, and R. D. Johnson, “Understanding the effect of CO2 on the pHe of fuel ethanol,” Fuel, vol. 199, pp. 1–3, 2017.
  19. P. K. Sahoo and L. M. Das, “Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils,” Fuel, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1588–1594, 2009.
  20. F. F. P. Santos, S. Rodrigues, and F. A. N. Fernandes, “Optimization of the production of biodiesel from soybean oil by ultrasound assisted methanolysis,” Fuel processing technology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 312–316, 2009.
  21. C. L. Peterson, D. L. Auld, and R. A. Korus, “Winter rape oil fuel for diesel engines: recovery and utilization,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1579–1587, 1983.
  22. R. A. Niehaus, C. E. Goering, L. D. Savage, and S. C. Sorenson, “Cracked soybean oil as a fuel for a diesel engine,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 683–689, 1986.
  23. C.-C. Chang and S.-W. Wan, “China’s motor fuels from tung oil,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1543–1548, 1947.
  24. A. Crossley, T. D. Heyes, and B. J. F. Hudson, “The effect of heat on pure triglycerides,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 1962.
  25. D. Pioch, R. Lozano, M. C. Rasoanantoandro, J. Graille, P. Geneste, and A. Guida, “Biofuels from catalytic cracking of tropical vegetable oils,” Oleagineux (France), 1993.
  26. A. W. Schwab, M. O. Bagby, and B. Freedman, “Preparation and properties of diesel fuels from vegetable oils,” Fuel, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1372–1378, 1987.
  27. J. Van Gerpen, “Biodiesel processing and production,” Fuel processing technology, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1097–1107, 2005.
  28. S. T. Keera, S. M. El Sabagh, and A. R. Taman, “Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel fuel using alkaline catalyst,” Fuel, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2011.
  29. M. Mathiyazhagan and A. Ganapathi, “Factors affecting biodiesel production,” Research in plant Biology, vol. 1, no. 2, 2011.
  30. F. J. Sprules and P. Donald, “Production of fatty esters.” Google Patents, Jan. 10, 1950.
  31. T. M. I. Mahlia et al., “Patent landscape review on biodiesel production: Technology updates,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 118, p. 109526, 2020.
  32. T. Eevera, K. Rajendran, and S. Saradha, “Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions,” Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 762–765, 2009.
  33. C. R. Seela, R. B. Sankar, and D. Bharadwaj, “Surfactants Influence on Diesel Engine Operated with Jatropha Curcas Biodiesel Blends,” Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 860–865, 2019.
  34. A. Saravanan, M. Murugan, M. S. Reddy, and S. Parida, “Performance and emission characteristics of variable compression ratio CI engine fueled with dual biodiesel blends of Rapeseed and Mahua,” Fuel, vol. 263, p. 116751, 2020.
  35. İ. A. Reşitoğlu, K. Altinişik, and A. Keskin, “The pollutant emissions from diesel-engine vehicles and exhaust aftertreatment systems,” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 15–27, 2015.
  36. J. W. Goodrum, D. P. Geller, and T. T. Adams, “Rheological characterization of animal fats and their mixtures with# 2 fuel oil,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 249–256, 2003.
  37. K. K. M. Liu, F. T. Barrows, R. W. Hardy, and F. M. Dong, “Body composition, growth performance, and product quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing poultry fat, soybean/corn lecithin, or menhaden oil,” Aquaculture, vol. 238, no. 1–4, pp. 309–328, 2004.
  38. S. Saraf and B. Thomas, “Influence of feedstock and process chemistry on biodiesel quality,” Process safety and environmental protection, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 360–364, 2007.
  39. F. R. Abreu, D. G. Lima, E. H. Hamú, C. Wolf, and P. A. Z. Suarez, “Utilization of metal complexes as catalysts in the transesterification of Brazilian vegetable oils with different alcohols,” Journal of molecular catalysis A: Chemical, vol. 209, no. 1–2, pp. 29–33, 2004.
  40. N. Azcan and A. Danisman, “Alkali catalyzed transesterification of cottonseed oil by microwave irradiation,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 17–18, pp. 2639–2644, 2007.
  41. N. Azcan and A. Danisman, “Microwave assisted transesterification of rapeseed oil,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 10–11, pp. 1781–1788, 2008.
  42. H. J. Berchmans and S. Hirata, “Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with a high content of free fatty acids,” Bioresource technology, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1716–1721, 2008.
  43. A. Bernardo et al., “Camelina oil as a fuel for diesel transport engines,” Industrial crops and products, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 191–197, 2003.
  44. J. Blin et al., “Characteristics of vegetable oils for use as fuel in stationary diesel engines—Towards specifications for a standard in West Africa,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 22, pp. 580–597, 2013.
  45. H. N. Bhatti, M. A. Hanif, and M. Qasim, “Biodiesel production from waste tallow,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 13–14, pp. 2961–2966, 2008.
  46. D. Y. C. Leung, X. Wu, and M. K. H. Leung, “A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification,” Applied energy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1083–1095, 2010.
  47. W. Yu and H. Xie, “A review on nanofluids: preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications,” Journal of nanomaterials, vol. 2012, 2012.
  48. K. Vinukumar, A. Azhagurajan, S. C. Vettivel, N. Vedaraman, and A. H. Lenin, “Biodiesel with nano additives from coconut shell for decreasing emissions in diesel engines,” Fuel, vol. 222, pp. 180–184, 2018.
  49. B. Bazooyar, S. Y. Hosseini, S. M. G. Begloo, A. Shariati, S. H. Hashemabadi, and F. Shaahmadi, “Mixed modified Fe2O3-WO3 as new fuel borne catalyst (FBC) for biodiesel fuel,” Energy, vol. 149, pp. 438–453, 2018.
  50. H. Venu and V. Madhavan, “Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in biodiesel-diesel-ethanol blends at various injection strategies: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics,” Fuel, vol. 186, pp. 176–189, 2016.
  51. M. Sivakumar, N. S. Sundaram, and M. H. S. Thasthagir, “Effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended pongamia methyl ester on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 116, pp. 518–526, 2018.
  52. J. Senthil Kumar, S. Ganesan, and S. Sivasaravanan, “Impact of nano additive on engine characteristics using blends of thyme oil with diesel,” International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 768–774, 2019.
  53. D. K. Ramesh, J. L. D. Kumar, S. G. H. Kumar, V. Namith, P. B. Jambagi, and S. Sharath, “Study on effects of alumina nanoparticles as additive with poultry litter biodiesel on performance, combustion and emission characteristic of diesel engine,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1114–1120, 2018.
  54. M. Ramezanizadeh, M. A. Nazari, M. H. Ahmadi, and E. Açıkkalp, “Application of nanofluids in thermosyphons: a review,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 272, pp. 395–402, 2018.
  55. A. I. El-Seesy, H. Hassan, and S. Ookawara, “Effects of graphene nanoplatelet addition to jatropha Biodiesel–Diesel mixture on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine,” Energy, vol. 147, pp. 1129–1152, 2018.
  56. J. S. Basha, “Impact of Carbon Nanotubes and Di-Ethyl Ether as additives with biodiesel emulsion fuels in a diesel engine–An experimental investigation,” Journal of the Energy Institute, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 289–303, 2018.
  57. V. W. Khond and V. M. Kriplani, “Effect of nanofluid additives on performances and emissions of emulsified diesel and biodiesel fueled stationary CI engine: A comprehensive review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 59, pp. 1338–1348, 2016.
  58. F. Afshari, H. Afshari, F. Afshari, and H. Ghasemi Zavaragh, “The effects of nanofilter and nanoclay on reducing pollutant emissions from rapeseed biodiesel in a diesel engine,” Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1655–1667, 2018.
  59. S. U. S. Choi and J. A. Eastman, “Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids.” Google Patents, Apr. 24, 2001.
  60. A. Aureen Albert, D. G. Harris Samuel, V. Parthasarathy, and K. Kiruthiga, “A facile one pot synthesis of highly stable PVA–CuO hybrid nanofluid for heat transfer application,” Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 207, no. 3, pp. 319–330, 2020.
  61. M. Mohammadpoor, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat, and Z. Manafi, “Investigating heat transfer properties of copper nanofluid in ethylene glycol synthesized through single and two-step routes,” International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 99, pp. 243–250, 2019.
  62. S. Mokhatab, M. A. Fresky, and M. R. Islam, “Applications of nanotechnology in oil and gas E&P,” Journal of petroleum technology, vol. 58, no. 04, pp. 48–51, 2006.
  63. M. N. Pantzali, A. A. Mouza, and S. V Paras, “Investigating the efficacy of nanofluids as coolants in plate heat exchangers (PHE),” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 64, no. 14, pp. 3290–3300, 2009.
  64. Y. Hwang et al., “Production and dispersion stability of nanoparticles in nanofluids,” Powder Technology, vol. 186, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2008.
  65. H. Akoh, Y. Tsukasaki, S. Yatsuya, and A. Tasaki, “Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic ultrafine particles prepared by vacuum evaporation on running oil substrate,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 45, pp. 495–500, 1978.
  66. S. Witharana, H. Chen, and Y. Ding, “Stability of nanofluids in quiescent and shear flow fields,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2011.
  67. N. Hordy, S. Coulombe, and J. Meunier, “Plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes for the synthesis of stable aqueous nanofluids and poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites,” Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 110–118, 2013.
  68. S. Askari, R. Lotfi, A. M. Rashidi, H. Koolivand, and M. Koolivand-Salooki, “Rheological and thermophysical properties of ultra-stable kerosene-based Fe3O4/Graphene nanofluids for energy conservation,” Energy conversion and management, vol. 128, pp. 134–144, 2016.
  69. N. Hordy, D. Rabilloud, J.-L. Meunier, and S. Coulombe, “A stable carbon nanotube nanofluid for latent heat-driven volumetric absorption solar heating applications,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2015, 2015.
  70. B. Sharma, S. K. Sharma, S. M. Gupta, and A. Kumar, “Modified two-step method to prepare long-term stable CNT nanofluids for heat transfer applications,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 6155–6163, 2018.
  71. B. Bakthavatchalam, K. Habib, R. Saidur, B. B. Saha, and K. Irshad, “Comprehensive study on nanofluid and ionanofluid for heat transfer enhancement: A review on current and future perspective,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 305, p. 112787, 2020.
  72. J. Ni, Y. Yang, and C. Wu, “Assessment of water-based fluids with additives in grinding disc cutting process,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 212, pp. 593–601, 2019.
  73. T. Wen and L. Lu, “A review of correlations and enhancement approaches for heat and mass transfer in liquid desiccant dehumidification system,” Applied Energy, vol. 239, pp. 757–784, 2019.
  74. S. H. Musavi, B. Davoodi, and S. A. Niknam, “Effects of reinforced nanoparticles with surfactant on surface quality and chip formation morphology in MQL-turning of superalloys,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 40, pp. 128–139, 2019.
  75. J.-K. Kim, J. Y. Jung, and Y. T. Kang, “Absorption performance enhancement by nano-particles and chemical surfactants in binary nanofluids,” International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2007.
  76. A. Ghadimi and I. H. Metselaar, “The influence of surfactant and ultrasonic processing on improvement of stability, thermal conductivity and viscosity of titania nanofluid,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 51, pp. 1–9, 2013.
  77. S. Chakraborty, J. Mukherjee, M. Manna, P. Ghosh, S. Das, and M. B. Denys, “Effect of Ag nanoparticle addition and ultrasonic treatment on a stable TiO2 nanofluid,” Ultrasonics sonochemistry, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1044–1050, 2012.
  78. I. M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, A. Hepbasli, and M. A. Amalina, “Experimental investigation of the relation between yield stress and ultrasonication period of nanofluid,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 93, pp. 1169–1174, 2016.
  79. J. Xu, C. Xu, L. Niu, and C. Kang, “Surface modification of Sb2O3 nanoparticles with dioctylphthalate,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 485, pp. 35–40, 2019.
  80. M. M. Saber, “Strategies for surface modification of gelatin-based nanoparticles,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 183, p. 110407, 2019.
  81. S. Yamamoto, S. Takao, S. Muraishi, C. Xu, and M. Taya, “Synthesis of Fe70Pd30 nanoparticles and their surface modification by zwitterionic linker,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 234, pp. 237–244, 2019.
  82. L. Jorge, S. Coulombe, and P.-L. Girard-Lauriault, “Tetraethylenepentamine and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane adsorbed on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for stable water and ethanol nanofluids,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 682, pp. 50–56, 2019.
  83. M. Zareei, H. Yoozbashizadeh, and H. R. Madaah Hosseini, “Investigating the effects of pH, surfactant and ionic strength on the stability of alumina/water nanofluids using DLVO theory,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 1185–1196, 2019.
  84. K. Goudarzi, F. Nejati, E. Shojaeizadeh, and S. K. A. Yousef-Abad, “Experimental study on the effect of pH variation of nanofluids on the thermal efficiency of a solar collector with helical tube,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 60, pp. 20–27, 2015.
  85. T. Tadros, “Electrostatic and steric stabilization of colloidal dispersions,” Electrical phenomena at interfaces and biointerfaces, pp. 153–172, 2012.
  86. A. K. Singh and V. S. Raykar, “Microwave synthesis of silver nanofluids with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and their transport properties,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 286, no. 14, pp. 1667–1673, 2008.
  87. H. Bönnemann, S. S. Botha, B. Bladergroen, and V. M. Linkov, “Monodisperse copper‐and silver‐nanocolloids suitable for heat‐conductive fluids,” Applied organometallic chemistry, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 768–773, 2005.
  88. H. Zhu, Y. Lin, and Y. Yin, “A novel one-step chemical method for preparation of copper nanofluids,” Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 277, no. 1, pp. 100–103, 2004.
  89. S. A. Kumar, K. S. Meenakshi, B. R. V Narashimhan, S. Srikanth, and G. Arthanareeswaran, “Synthesis and characterization of copper nanofluid by a novel one-step method,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2009.
  90. E. De Robertis et al., “Application of the modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry technique for the determination of the specific heat of copper nanofluids,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 10–17, 2012.
  91. J. M. Salehi, M. M. Heyhat, and A. Rajabpour, “Enhancement of thermal conductivity of silver nanofluid synthesized by a one-step method with the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on thermal behavior,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, no. 23, p. 231907, 2013.
  92. M. A. Khairul, E. Doroodchi, R. Azizian, and B. Moghtaderi, “Experimental study on fundamental mechanisms of ferro-fluidics for an electromagnetic energy harvester,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 55, no. 48, pp. 12491–12501, 2016.
  93. W. Yu, H. Xie, X. Wang, and X. Wang, “Significant thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids containing graphene nanosheets,” Physics Letters A, vol. 375, no. 10, pp. 1323–1328, 2011.
  94. N. M. Ribeiro et al., “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy & fuels, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 2433–2445, 2007.
  95. Z. Said, M. A. Abdelkareem, H. Rezk, and A. M. Nassef, “Fuzzy modeling and optimization for experimental thermophysical properties of water and ethylene glycol mixture for Al2O3 and TiO2 based nanofluids,” Powder Technology, vol. 353, pp. 345–358, 2019.
  96. I. M. Mahbubul, E. B. Elcioglu, M. A. Amalina, and R. Saidur, “Stability, thermophysical properties and performance assessment of alumina–water nanofluid with emphasis on ultrasonication and storage period,” Powder Technology, vol. 345, pp. 668–675, 2019.
  97. Y. Tong, H. Lee, W. Kang, and H. Cho, “Energy and exergy comparison of a flat-plate solar collector using water, Al2O3 nanofluid, and CuO nanofluid,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 159, p. 113959, 2019.
  98. G. R. Kannan, R. Karvembu, and R. Anand, “Effect of metal based additive on performance emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel,” Applied energy, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 3694–3703, 2011.
  99. M. Gürü, A. Koca, Ö. Can, C. Çınar, and F. Şahin, “Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat based sources and evaluation with Mg based additive in a diesel engine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 637–643, 2010.
  100. D. Mei, X. Li, Q. Wu, and P. Sun, “Role of cerium oxide nanoparticles as diesel additives in combustion efficiency improvements and emission reduction,” Journal of Energy Engineering, vol. 142, no. 4, p. 4015050, 2016.
  101. J. S. Basha and R. B. Anand, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using Carbon Nanotubes blended Jatropha Methyl Ester Emulsions,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 259–273, 2014.
  102. P. Tewari, E. Doijode, N. R. Banapurmath, and V. S. Yaliwal, “Experimental investigations on a diesel engine fuelled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes blended biodiesel fuels,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 72–76, 2013.
  103. S. Karthikeyan, A. Elango, and A. Prathima, “Performance and emission study on zinc oxide nano particles addition with pomolion stearin wax biodiesel of CI engine,” 2014.
  104. R. N. Mehta, M. Chakraborty, and P. A. Parikh, “Nanofuels: Combustion, engine performance and emissions,” Fuel, vol. 120, pp. 91–97, 2014.
  105. V. A. M. Selvan, R. B. Anand, and M. Udayakumar, “Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as fuel-borne additives in diesterol blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine,” Fuel, vol. 130, pp. 160–167, 2014.
  106. B. M. Paramashivaiah, N. R. Banapurmath, C. R. Rajashekhar, and S. V Khandal, “Studies on effect of graphene nanoparticles addition in different levels with simarouba biodiesel and diesel blends on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 4793–4801, 2018.
  107. S. Gumus, H. Ozcan, M. Ozbey, and B. Topaloglu, “Aluminum oxide and copper oxide nanodiesel fuel properties and usage in a compression ignition engine,” Fuel, vol. 163, pp. 80–87, 2016.
  108. A. Praveen, G. L. N. Rao, and B. Balakrishna, “Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends with TiO2 nanoadditives and EGR,” Egyptian journal of petroleum, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 731–738, 2018.
  109. Q. Wu, X. Xie, Y. Wang, and T. Roskilly, “Effect of carbon coated aluminum nanoparticles as additive to biodiesel-diesel blends on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine,” Applied Energy, vol. 221, pp. 597–604, 2018.
  110. G. Vairamuthu, S. Sundarapandian, C. Kailasanathan, and B. Thangagiri, “Experimental investigation on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle on Calophyllum inophyllum (Punnai) biodiesel blended with diesel fuel in DI diesel engine modified by nozzle geometry,” Journal of the Energy Institute, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 668–682, 2016.
  111. S. H. Hosseini, A. Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, B. Ghobadian, and A. Abbaszadeh-Mayvan, “Performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with carbon nanotubes and diesel-biodiesel blends,” Renewable Energy, vol. 111, pp. 201–213, 2017.
  112. A. Keskin, A. Yaşar, Ş. Yıldızhan, E. Uludamar, F. M. Emen, and N. Külcü, “Evaluation of diesel fuel-biodiesel blends with palladium and acetylferrocene based additives in a diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 216, pp. 349–355, 2018.
  113. K. Nanthagopal, B. Ashok, B. Saravanan, D. Patel, B. Sudarshan, and R. A. Ramasamy, “An assessment on the effects of 1-pentanol and 1-butanol as additives with Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 158, pp. 70–80, 2018.
  114. A. Prabu, “Nanoparticles as additive in biodiesel on the working characteristics of a DI diesel engine,” Ain shams Engineering journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 2343–2349, 2018.
  115. B. Ashok, K. Nanthagopal, A. Mohan, A. Johny, and A. Tamilarasu, “Comparative analysis on the effect of zinc oxide and ethanox as additives with biodiesel in CI engine,” Energy, vol. 140, pp. 352–364, 2017.
  116. S. Kumar, P. Dinesha, and I. Bran, “Influence of nanoparticles on the performance and emission characteristics of a biodiesel fuelled engine: An experimental analysis,” Energy, vol. 140, pp. 98–105, 2017.
  117. S. S. Hoseini, G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, R. Mamat, M. T. Ebadi, and T. Yusaf, “Novel environmentally friendly fuel: The effects of nanographene oxide additives on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines fuelled with Ailanthus altissima biodiesel,” Renewable energy, vol. 125, pp. 283–294, 2018.
  118. A. I. El-Seesy, A. M. A. Attia, and H. M. El-Batsh, “The effect of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles addition with Jojoba methyl ester-diesel fuel blend on a diesel engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics,” Fuel, vol. 224, pp. 147–166, 2018.
  119. M. Mehregan and M. Moghiman, “Effects of nano-additives on pollutants emission and engine performance in a urea-SCR equipped diesel engine fueled with blended-biodiesel,” Fuel, vol. 222, pp. 402–406, 2018.
  120. A. Ranjan, S. S. Dawn, J. Jayaprabakar, N. Nirmala, K. Saikiran, and S. S. Sriram, “Experimental investigation on effect of MgO nanoparticles on cold flow properties, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel,” Fuel, vol. 220, pp. 780–791, 2018.
  121. A. Praveen, G. L. N. Rao, and B. Balakrishna, “The combined effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and exhaust gas recirculation on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine,” International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 791–799, 2019.
  122. Y. Devarajan, D. B. Munuswamy, and A. Mahalingam, “Influence of nano-additive on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on neat neem oil biodiesel,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 26, pp. 26167–26172, 2018.
  123. G. Ramakrishnan, P. Krishnan, S. Rathinam, and Y. Devarajan, “Role of nano-additive blended biodiesel on emission characteristics of the research diesel engine,” International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 435–441, 2019.
  124. Y. Devarajan, D. B. Munuswamy, and A. Mahalingam, “Investigation on behavior of diesel engine performance, emission, and combustion characteristics using nano-additive in neat biodiesel,” Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1641–1650, 2019.
  125. Y. Devarajan, B. Nagappan, and G. Subbiah, “A comprehensive study on emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with nanoparticle-blended biodiesel,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 10662–10672, 2019.
  126. M. E. M. Soudagar et al., “An investigation on the influence of aluminium oxide nano-additive and honge oil methyl ester on engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics,” Renewable Energy, vol. 146, pp. 2291–2307, 2020.
  127. R. N. Mehta, M. Chakraborty, and P. A. Parikh, “Impact of hydrogen generated by splitting water with nano-silicon and nano-aluminum on diesel engine performance,” International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 8098–8105, 2014.
  128. H. R. H. Hebbar, M. C. Math, and K. V Yatish, “Optimization and kinetic study of CaO nano-particles catalyzed biodiesel production from Bombax ceiba oil,” Energy, vol. 143, pp. 25–34, 2018.
  129. W. M. Yang et al., “Emulsion fuel with novel nano-organic additives for diesel engine application,” Fuel, vol. 104, pp. 726–731, 2013.
  130. D. Yuvarajan, M. D. Babu, N. BeemKumar, and P. A. Kishore, “Experimental investigation on the influence of titanium dioxide nanofluid on emission pattern of biodiesel in a diesel engine,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2018.
  131. V. A. M. Selvan, R. B. Anand, and M. Udayakumar, “Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine,” J Eng Appl Sci, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1819–6608, 2009.
  132. J. L. I. A. Gardy, “Biodiesel production from used cooking oil using novel solid acid catalysts.” University of Leeds, 2017.
  133. J. S. Basha and R. B. Anand, “An experimental study in a CI engine using nanoadditive blended water–diesel emulsion fuel,” International journal of green energy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 332–348, 2011.
  134. J. Sadhik Basha and R. B. Anand, “The influence of nano additive blended biodiesel fuels on the working characteristics of a diesel engine,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2013.
  135. J. S. Basha and R. B. Anand, “Applications of nanoparticle/nanofluid in compression ignition engines–a case study,” International journal of applied engineering and research, vol. 5, pp. 697–708, 2010.
  136. H. Caliskan and K. Mori, “Environmental, enviroeconomic and enhanced thermodynamic analyses of a diesel engine with diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) after treatment systems,” Energy, vol. 128, pp. 128–144, 2017.
  137. S. Radhakrishnan, D. B. Munuswamy, Y. Devarajan, and A. Mahalingam, “Effect of nanoparticle on emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with cashew nut shell biodiesel,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 40, no. 20, pp. 2485–2493, 2018.
  138. A. Devaraj, Y. Devarajan, and I. Vinoth Kanna, “Investigation on emission pattern of biodiesel and Nano-particles,” International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1103–1107, 2021.
  139. S. Vellaiyan, A. Subbiah, and P. Chockalingam, “Effect of Titanium dioxide nanoparticle as an additive on the working characteristics of biodiesel-water emulsion fuel blends,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1087–1099, 2021.
  140. E. Perumal Venkatesan, D. Balasubramanian, O. D. Samuel, M. U. Kaisan, and P. Murugesan, “Effect of hybrid nanoparticle on DI diesel engine performance, combustion, and emission studies,” in Novel Internal Combustion Engine Technologies for Performance Improvement and Emission Reduction, Springer, 2021, pp. 235–263.
  141. D. Mei, L. Zuo, D. Adu-Mensah, X. Li, and Y. Yuan, “Combustion characteristics and emissions of a common rail diesel engine using nanoparticle-diesel blends with carbon nanotube and molybdenum trioxide,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 162, p. 114238, 2019.
  142. S. Ichikawa, “Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from natural seawater under sunlight,” International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 675–678, 1997.
  143. M. K. Parida, P. Mohapatra, S. S. Patro, and S. Dash, “Effect of TiO2 nano-additive on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with Karanja biodiesel blend,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, pp. 1–10, 2020.
  144. K. Nanthagopal, B. Ashok, A. Tamilarasu, A. Johny, and A. Mohan, “Influence on the effect of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as an additive with Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester in a CI engine,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 146, pp. 8–19, 2017.
  145. O. S. Valente, V. M. D. Pasa, C. R. P. Belchior, and J. R. Sodré, “Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel,” Science of the total environment, vol. 431, pp. 57–61, 2012.
  146. I. Veza, V. Muhammad, R. Oktavian, D. W. Djamari, and M. F. M. Said, “Effect of COVID-19 on biodiesel industry: A case study in Indonesia and Malaysia,” International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 8637–8646, 2021.
  147. S. Mahalingam and S. Ganesan, “Effect of nano-fuel additive on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine using biodiesel blends with diesel fuel,” International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 316–321, 2020.
  148. A. Keskin, M. Gürü, and D. Altıparmak, “Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 2011.
  149. A. Keskin, M. Gürü, and D. Altıparmak, “Biodiesel production from tall oil with synthesized Mn and Ni based additives: effects of the additives on fuel consumption and emissions,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 7–8, pp. 1139–1143, 2007.