Main Article Content


Although the technology of fuel injection in motorcycles has reached ports and direct injection, motorcycles with carburetors are still used. In this research, the carburetor was modified by adding a swirling vane. This study is intended to provide an explanation regarding engine performance which includes torque, power, mileage, emissions, and engine oil temperature. The study begins with a review of the shape and flow characteristics of the swirling vane based on the largest flow according to previous studies. Then, a swirling vane is built and tested to ensure its optimal shape. The findings were compared with conventional carburetor-based engines that had not been treated. Experiments were also carried out on gasoline-ethanol to obtain optimal results and use them appropriately for alternative fuel applications. A comparison of data on torque, power, exhaust emissions, temperature, and mileage reveals that vehicles modified with swirling vanes have better performance. Furthermore, based on the results of gasoline-ethanol application tests, this design is only suitable for use up to E25.


Bioethanol Carburetor Engine performance Ethanol Gasoline Swirling vane

Article Details


  1. E. D. Karakitie, C. E. Aralu, and A. D. Fadare, “Performance charateristics of a conventional spark ignition petrol engine powered by biogas,” Fuel Communications, vol. 10, p. 100032, 2022.
  2. Z. Xi, Z. Liu, X. Shi, T. Lian, and Y. Li, “Numerical investigation on flow characteristics and emissions under varying swirler vane angle in a lean premixed combustor,” Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol. 31, p. 101800, 2022.
  3. U. Kiencke and L. Nielsen, “Automotive control systems: for engine, driveline, and vehicle.” IOP Publishing, 2000.
  4. P. M. Anacleto, E. C. Fernandes, M. V Heitor, and S. I. Shtork, “Swirl flow structure and flame characteristics in a model lean premixed combustor,” Combustion Science and Technology, vol. 175, no. 8, pp. 1369–1388, 2003.
  5. M. B. Linck and A. K. Gupta, “Twin-fluid atomization and novel lifted swirl-stabilized spray flames,” Journal of Propulsion and Power, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 344–357, 2009.
  6. H. Yilmaz and I. Yilmaz, “Combustion and emission characteristics of premixed CNG/H2/CO/CO2 blending synthetic gas flames in a combustor with variable geometric swirl number,” Energy, vol. 172, pp. 117–133, 2019.
  7. R. T. K. Raj and V. Ganesan, “Study on the effect of various parameters on flow development behind vane swirlers,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1204–1225, 2008.
  8. K. Khanafer and S. M. Aithal, “Fluid-dynamic and NOx computation in swirl burners,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 54, no. 23–24, pp. 5030–5038, 2011.
  9. M. İlbaş, S. Karyeyen, and İ. Yilmaz, “Effect of swirl number on combustion characteristics of hydrogen-containing fuels in a combustor,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 7185–7191, 2016.
  10. M. Setiyo, “Alternative fuels for transportation sector in Indonesia,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2022.
  11. S. Syarifudin, F. L. Sanjaya, F. Fatkhurrozak, M. K. Usman, Y. Sibagariang, and H. Köten, “Effect Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol on the Emissions Characteristics of Gasoline Engine,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 62–67, 2020.
  12. M. Wahyu, H. Rahmad, and G. J. Gotama, “Effect of Cassava Biogasoline on Fuel Consumption and CO Exhaust Emissions,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 97–103, 2019.
  13. S. M. N. Rahayu et al., “A Review of automotive green technology: Potential of butanol as biofuel in gasoline engine,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 82–97, 2022.
  14. B. Waluyo, M. Setiyo, Saifudin, and I. N. G. Wardana, “Fuel performance for stable homogeneous gasoline-methanol-ethanol blends,” Fuel, vol. 294, p. 120565, 2021.
  15. B. Waluyo, I. N. G. Wardana, L. Yuliati, and M. N. Sasongko, “The role of molecule cluster on the azeotrope and boiling points of isooctane-ethanol blend,” Fuel, vol. 215, no. September 2017, pp. 178–186, 2018.
  16. B. Waluyo, I. N. G. Wardana, L. Yuliati, M. N. Sasongko, and M. Setiyo, “The role of polar ethanol induction in various iso-octane ethanol fuel blend during single droplet combustion,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 199, p. 106275, 2020.
  17. B. Waluyo and B. C. Purnomo, “Exhaust Gas Emissions of Homogeneous Gasoline-Methanol-(Ethanol) Blends,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 173–181, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.6599.
  18. M. Setiyo, Saifudin, A. W. Jamin, R. Nugroho, and D. W. Karmiadji, “The Effect of Ethanol on Fuel Tank Corrosion Rate,” Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 19–25, 2018.
  19. N. Vinoth, V. Mohanavel, A. Kannappan, and K. Mohith, “CFD modelling of carburetor with several valve positions,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 37, pp. 1535–1549, 2021.
  20. M.-C. Chiong, A. Valera-Medina, W. W. F. Chong, C. T. Chong, G. R. Mong, and M. N. M. Jaafar, “Effects of swirler vane angle on palm biodiesel/natural gas combustion in swirl-stabilised gas turbine combustor,” Fuel, vol. 277, p. 118213, 2020.
  21. M. Ghafari and M. B. Ghofrani, “New turbulence modeling for air/water stratified flow,” Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 55–67, 2020.
  22. R. F. Colin and F. K. Allan, Internal combustion engines Applied Thermosciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
  23. S. Richard and K. B. Jeffrey, “Automotive engine fundamentals,” SAE International, 2004.
  24. A. T. Hoang, Q. V. Tran, A. R. M. S. Al-Tawaha, V. V. Pham, and X. P. Nguyen, “Comparative analysis on performance and emission characteristics of an in-Vietnam popular 4-stroke motorcycle engine running on biogasoline and mineral gasoline,” Renewable Energy Focus, vol. 28, no. March, pp. 47–55, 2019.
  25. D. Y. Dhande, N. Sinaga, and K. B. Dahe, “Study on combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of bioethanol-gasoline blended spark ignition engine,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 3, p. e06380, 2021.
  26. M. K. Mohammed, H. H. Balla, Z. M. H. Al-Dulaimi, Z. S. Kareem, and M. S. Al-Zuhairy, “Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on SI engine performance and emissions,” Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol. 25, no. May 2020, p. 100891, 2021.
  27. S. Sakai and D. Rothamer, “Relative particle emission tendencies of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol–gasoline, isobutanol–gasoline, and ethanol–gasoline blends from premixed combustion in a spark-ignition engine,” Fuel, vol. 324, p. 124638, 2022.
  28. S. Oh et al., “Combustion, emissions, and performance of natural gas–ammonia dual-fuel spark-ignited engine at full-load condition,” Energy, vol. 258, p. 124837, 2022.
  29. M. A. Costagliola et al., “Performances and emissions of a 4-stroke motorcycle fuelled with ethanol/gasoline blends,” Fuel, vol. 183, pp. 470–477, 2016.
  30. A. Yakın and R. Behçet, “Effect of different types of fuels tested in a gasoline engine on engine performance and emissions,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 46, no. 66, pp. 33325–33338, 2021.
  31. L. Zhang and Q. Qi, “A reduced mechanism for the combustion of gasoline-ethanol blend on advanced engine combustion modes,” Fuel, vol. 300, p. 120951, 2021.
  32. Z. Zhou et al., “Impacts of applying ethanol blended gasoline and evaporation emission control to motor vehicles in a megacity in southwest China,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 13, no. 5, p. 101378, 2022.
  33. S. Liu, H. Zhang, Q. Fan, W. Wang, Y. Qi, and Z. Wang, “Investigation of combustion and particle number (PN) emissions in a spark induced compression ignition (SICI) engine for ethanol-gasoline blends,” Fuel, vol. 316, p. 123155, 2022.
  34. E. Tarigan, “Studi Kasus: Karakteristik Konsumsi Bahan Bakar Sepeda Motor 110 CC Matic dengan CDI BRT,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 1, no. 02, pp. 53–57, 2018.
  35. J. A. M. Mendez, M. Klein, and H. Schmidt, “One-Dimensional Turbulence investigation of variable density effects due to heat transfer in a low Mach number internal air flow,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 80, p. 108481, 2019.
  36. A. Elfasakhany, “Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis,” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 713–719, 2015.
  37. M. Krishnamoorthi, R. Malayalamurthi, Z. He, and S. Kandasamy, “A review on low temperature combustion engines: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 116, p. 109404, 2019.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2