Main Article Content


Currently, research on natural fiber composites (NFC) for automotive applications has attracted the attention of researchers and academics. Natural fibers such as coconut fiber and wood powder are mixed with metal materials such as aluminum and copper to obtain the composite characteristics of automatic motorcycle clutch pad materials. Coconut fiber and wood powder are suitable natural materials for composites and are easily obtained from waste. Natural fiber materials with metal reinforcement into composites are expected to produce materials suitable for friction materials such as clutch pads and brake pads with a good characteristic. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the coefficient of friction, wear, and hardness of NFC materials reinforced aluminum and copper powder for the performance of automatic motorcycle clutch pads. Experiments were carried out on various compositions of aluminum and copper powder. Tribometer testing was carried out to determine the friction coefficient and wear. Hardness testing using the Vickers method and testing the performance of automatic motorbikes with a chassis dyno test. The results show that the performances of the clutch pad with NFC-reinforced aluminum and copper show power and torque results that resemble the performances of genuine part materials in each operating cycle. The value of friction coefficient, wear, and hardness of this material are a value close to that of a genuine part clutch pad material. The improved performance of this material is expected to be considered in the manufacture of future clutch pads.


Natural fiber composites Friction coefficient Wear Hardness Oil absorption Clutch pad

Article Details

Author Biography

Danang Budi Pratama, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Mechanical Engineering Education


  1. A. Kholil, S. T. Dwiyati, and H. P. Randika, “Performance Testing of Motorcycle Centrifugal Clutch Lining Made from Composite Wood Powder, Coconut Fibre, and Green Mussel Shell,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021, vol. 2019, no. 1, p. 12065, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/2019/1/012065.
  2. W. C. Orthwein, Clutches and brakes: design and selection. CRC Press, 2004.
  3. R. S. Khurmi and J. K. Gupta, A textbook of machine design. S. Chand publishing, 2005.
  4. M. Milosevic, P. Valášek, and A. Ruggiero, “Tribology of natural fibers composite materials: An overview,” Lubricants, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 42, 2020, doi: 10.3390/lubricants8040042.
  5. A. Kholil, S. T. Dwiyati, R. Riyadi, J. P. Siregar, N. G. Yoga, and A. I. Aji, “Characteristics of wood powder, coconut fiber and green mussel shell composite for motorcycle centrifugal clutch pads,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2021, vol. 1098, no. 6, p. 62034, doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/1098/6/062034.
  6. R. Widyorini, N. H. Sari, M. Setiyo, and G. Refiadi, “The Role of Composites for Sustainable Society and Industry,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 48–53, 2021, doi: 10.31603/mesi.6188.
  7. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, D. F. Al Husaeni, R. Ragadhita, and T. Kurniawan, “Resin-based Brake Pad from Rice Husk Particles: From Literature Review of Brake Pad from Agricultural Waste to the Techno-Economic Analysis,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 131–149, 2021, doi: 10.31603/ae.5217.
  8. T. Mishra, P. Mandal, A. K. Rout, and D. Sahoo, “A state-of-the-art review on potential applications of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite filled with inorganic nanoparticle,” Composites Part C: Open Access, p. 100298, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.jcomc.2022.100298.
  9. N. Chand and M. Fahim, “1 - Natural fibers and their composites,” in Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering, N. Chand and M. B. T.-T. of N. F. P. C. Fahim, Eds. Woodhead Publishing, 2008, pp. 1–58.
  10. A. B. D. Nandiyanto et al., “The effects of rice husk particles size as a reinforcement component on resin-based brake pad performance: From literature review on the use of agricultural waste as a reinforcement material, chemical polymerization reaction of epoxy resin, to experiments,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 68–82, 2021, doi: 10.31603/ae.4815.
  11. F. Triawan, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, I. O. Suryani, M. Fiandini, and B. A. Budiman, “The Influence of Turmeric Microparticles Amount on The Mechanical and Biodegradation Properties of Cornstarch-Based Bioplastic Material: From Bioplastic Literature Review to Experiments,” Materials Physics & Mechanics, vol. 46, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.18720/MPM.4612020_10.
  12. S. Sutikno, B. Pramujati, S. D. Safitri, and A. Razitania, “Characteristics of natural fiber reinforced composite for brake pads material,” in AIP conference proceedings, 2018, vol. 1983, no. 1, doi: 10.1063/1.5046282.
  13. A. Kholil, R. Riyadi, S. T. Dwiyati, E. A. Syaefuddin, R. H. Pratama, and Y. D. R. Putra, “Natural Fiber Composites from Coconut Fiber, Wood Powder, and Shellfish Shell of Centrifugal Clutch Materials,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.6040.
  14. B. V. Ramnath, J. Jeykrishnan, G. Ramakrishnan, B. Barath, and E. Ejoelavendhan, “Sea shells and natural fibres composites: a review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1846–1851, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2017.11.284.
  15. H. Jaya et al., “The effects of wood sawdust loading on tensile and physical properties of up/pf/wsd composites,” in IOP Conference Series: materials science and engineering, 2018, vol. 454, no. 1, p. 12193, doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/454/1/012193.
  16. O. R. Adetunji, A. M. Adedayo, S. O. Ismailia, O. U. Dairo, I. K. Okediran, and O. M. Adesusi, “Effect of silica on the mechanical properties of palm kernel shell based automotive brake pad,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2022, doi: 10.31603/mesi.6178.
  17. T. H. Silva, J. Mesquita-Guimarães, B. Henriques, F. S. Silva, and M. C. Fredel, “The potential use of oyster shell waste in new value-added by-product,” Resources, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 13, 2019, doi: 10.3390/resources8010013.
  18. J. Bijwe, “Composites as friction materials: Recent developments in non‐asbestos fiber reinforced friction materials—a review,” Polymer composites, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 378–396, 1997, doi: 10.1002/pc.10289.
  19. A. P. Irawan et al., “Overview of the Important Factors Influencing the Performance of Eco-Friendly Brake Pads,” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 1180, 2022, doi: 10.3390/polym14061180.
  20. Y. Lyu, J. Ma, A. H. Åström, J. Wahlström, and U. Olofsson, “Recycling of worn out brake pads‒impact on tribology and environment,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 8369, 2020, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65265-w.
  21. A. Borawski, “Conventional and unconventional materials used in the production of brake pads–review,” Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 374–396, 2020, doi: 10.1515/secm-2020-0041.
  22. H. Rajaei, M. Griso, C. Menapace, A. Dorigato, G. Perricone, and S. Gialanella, “Investigation on the recyclability potential of vehicular brake pads,” Results in Materials, vol. 8, p. 100161, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.rinma.2020.100161.
  23. A. Guo et al., “Effects of aluminum hydroxide on mechanical, water resistance, and thermal properties of starch-based fiber-reinforced composites with foam structures,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 23, pp. 1570–1583, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.01.132.
  24. A. Sankar and S. Sajan, “Manufacturing of high strength plywood composites reinforced with copper fibers,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 47, pp. 5255–5259, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.610.
  25. M. H. M. Hamdan et al., “Water absorption behaviour on the mechanical properties of woven hybrid reinforced polyester composites,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 104, pp. 1075–1086, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-03976-9.
  26. N. A. Ahad, F. Z. Rozali, N. H. Rosli, N. I. H. Hanif, and N. Parimin, “Oil and water absorption behavior of TPU/natural fibers composites,” Solid state phenomena, vol. 280, pp. 374–381, 2018, doi: 10.4028/
  27. N. S. Hartati et al., “Wood characteristic of superior Sengon collection and prospect of wood properties improvement through genetic engineering,” Wood Research Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 103–107, 2010, doi: 10.51850/wrj.2010.1.2.103-107.
  28. M. F. K. HS, “Testing of mechanical characteristics of coconut fiber reinforced for composite brake pads for two-wheeled vehicles,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, vol. 546, no. 4, p. 42018, doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/546/4/042018.
  29. P. V Gurunath and J. Bijwe, “Friction and wear studies on brake-pad materials based on newly developed resin,” Wear, vol. 263, no. 7–12, pp. 1212–1219, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2006.12.050.
  30. S. A. Bello, J. O. Agunsoye, S. B. Hassan et, al, and M. G. Z. Kana, “Epoxy resin based composites, mechanical and tribological properties: A review,” Tribology in Industry, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 500, 2015.
  31. D. Chan and G. W. Stachowiak, “Review of automotive brake friction materials,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, vol. 218, no. 9, pp. 953–966, 2004, doi: 10.1243/0954407041856773.
  32. G. Sundarapandian and K. Arunachalam, “Investigating suitability of natural fibre-based composite as an alternative to asbestos clutch facing material in dry friction clutch of automobiles,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, vol. 912, no. 5, p. 52017, doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/912/5/052017.
  33. G. Akincioğlu, S. Akincioğlu, H. Öktem, and İ. Uygur, “Brake pad performance characteristic assessment methods,” International Journal of Automotive Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 67–78, 2021, doi: 10.30939/ijastech.848266.
  34. K. I. Hamada and M. M. Rahman, “An experimental study for performance and emissions of a small four-stroke SI engine for modern motorcycle,” International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1852–1865, 2014, doi: 10.15282/ijame.10.2014.3.0154.

Most read articles by the same author(s)