Main Article Content


The increasing volume of motorized vehicles leads to an increase in dependence on fossil fuels and an increase in air pollution. The problem can be reduced by utilizing renewable alcohol fuels such as methanol, ethanol, and butanol. The high number of octane and oxygen content is the main reason. Therefore, this study aims to observe the exhaust emissions of the 160 cc gasoline engine with a mixture of methanol, ethanol, and butanol. The percentage of alcohol used is 0 % to 30 % by volume. The test was carried out in 2000, 3000, and 4000 rpm. The results of the study explained that the use of methanol, ethanol, butanol in the fuel mixture was proven to reduce exhaust emissions. CO and HC emissions decreased as the percentage of alcohol in the fuel increased. The highest reduction in CO and HC emission in methanol blended fuel was 30 %, 94.55 % and 82.71 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO2 emissions increased by 34.88 % at 2000 rpm engine speed. Based on this test, the addition of methanol to fuel can reduce exhaust emissions better than ethanol and butanol.


Renewable fuel Methanol Ethanol Buthanol

Article Details


  1. Y. Huang, N. C. Surawski, B. Organ, J. L. Zhou, O. H. H. Tang, and E. F. C. Chan, “Science of the Total Environment Fuel consumption and emissions performance under real driving : Comparison between hybrid and conventional vehicles,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 659, pp. 275–282, 2019.
  2. N. C. Kresnanto, “Model Pertumbuhan Sepeda Motor Berdasarkan Produk Dosmetik Regional Bruto ( PRDB ) Perkapita ( Studi Kasus Pulau Jawa ),” Media Komunikasi Tenik Sipil, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 107–114, 2019.
  3. E. Suryono, I. Henry, A. Nagoro, D. Yoga, S. Wicaksana, and A. Info, “Analisis Temperatur Bahan Bakar pada Reaktor Hydrocarbon Crack System Terhadap Hasil Emisi Engine 4A-FE," Automotive Experiences, vol. 1, no. 03, pp. 58–63, 2018.
  4. K. Nithyanandan et al., “Improved SI engine efficiency using Acetone – Butanol – Ethanol ( ABE ),” Fuel, vol. 174, pp. 333–343, 2016.
  5. Y. Li, Z. Ning, C. F. Lee, J. Yan, and T. H. Lee, “Effect of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-gasoline blends on regulated and unregulated emissions in spark-ignition engine,” Energy, vol. 168, pp. 1157-1167, 2018.
  6. C. D. Rakopoulos, D. C. Rakopoulos, G. M. Kosmadakis, and R. G. Papagiannakis, “Experimental comparative assessment of butanol or ethanol diesel-fuel extenders impact on combustion features, cyclic irregularity, and regulated emissions balance in heavy-duty diesel engine,” Energy, vol. 174, pp. 1145–1157, 2019.
  7. M. Wahyu, H. Rahmad, and G. J. Gotama, “Effect of Cassava Biogasoline on Fuel Consumption and CO Exhaust Emissions,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 97–103, 2019.
  8. H. Liu, G. Ma, B. Hu, Z. Zheng, and M. Yao, “Effects of Port Injection of Hydrous Ethanol on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Mode,” Energy, vol. 145, pp. 592-602, 2017.
  9. S. Syarifudin, S. Syaiful, “Performance and soot emissions from direct injection diesel engine fueled by diesel-jatropha-butanol-blended diesel fuel” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1517, pp. 1-8, 2020.
  10. M. N. A. M. Yusof et al., “Performance and emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine fuelled with butanol isomer-gasoline blends,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 57, pp. 23–38, 2017.
  11. A. Elfasakhany, “Experimental investigation on SI engine using gasoline and a hybrid iso-butanol / gasoline fuel,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 95, pp. 398–405, 2015.
  12. A. Elfasakhany, “Experimental study of dual n-butanol and iso-butanol additives on spark-ignition engine performance and emissions,” Fuel, vol. 163, pp. 166–174, 2016.
  13. H. Huang, Z. Li, W. Teng, R. Huang, Q. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Effects of EGR rates on combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine with n-butanol/PODE3-4/diesel blends,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 146, pp. 212-222, 2018.
  14. R. Feng, J. Fu, J. Yang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, and B. Deng, “Combustion and emissions study on motorcycle engine fueled with butanol-gasoline blend,” Renewable Energy, vol. 81, pp. 113–122, 2015.
  15. H. Sharudin, N. Rosli, G. Najafi, R. Mamat, and H. H. Masjuki, “Investigation of the effects of iso-butanol additives on spark ignition engine fuelled with methanol-gasoline blends,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 114, pp. 593–600, 2017.
  16. K. Nithyanandan and C. Lee, “Investigating the Impact of Acetone on the Performance and Emissions of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol ( ABE ) and Gasoline Blends in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper Series, 2015-01-0909, 2015.
  17. A. H. Sebayang, H. Ibrahim, S. Dharma, A. S. Silitonga, B. Ginting, and N. Damanik, “Pengaruh Campuran Bahan Bakar Biji Sorghum pada Mesin Bensin,” Jurnal Teknosains, vol. 9, no.2, pp. 91–104, 2020.
  18. A. Syarifuddin, et al., “Pengaruh Methanol Kadar Tinggi Terhadap Performa dan Emisi Gas Buang Mesin Bensin dengan Sistem EGR,” Prosiding Semnastek, pp. 1-11, 2015.
  19. A. M. Elzahaby et al., “Kinetic modeling and experimental study on the combustion , performance and emission characteristics of a PCCI engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 927–937, 2018.
  20. F. L. Sanjaya and N. Sinaga, “Effect of Premium-Butanol Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions on Gasoline Engine with Cold EGR System,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1373, pp. 11–17, 2019.
  21. Y. Li et al., “Effect of water-containing acetone – butanol – ethanol gasoline blends on combustion , performance , and emissions characteristics of a spark-ignition engine,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 117, pp. 21–30, 2016.
  22. Y. Li, Y. Chen, G. Wu, C. F. Lee, and J. Liu, “Experimental comparison of acetone-n-butanol-ethanol ( ABE ) and isopropanol-n-butanol-ethanol ( IBE ) as fuel candidate in spark-ignition engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 133, pp. 179–187, 2018.
  23. M. Billah, M. H. Hassan, A. Kalam, and P. Sarker, “Effect of alcohol-gasoline blends optimization on fuel properties and their effect on SI engine performance and emission,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 86, pp. 230-237, 2015.
  24. M. S. M. Zaharin, N. R. Abdullah, H. H. Masjuki, O. M. Ali, G. Najafi, and T. Yusaf, “Evaluation on physicochemical properties of iso-butanol additives in ethanol-gasoline blend on performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 144, pp. 960-971, 2018.
  25. M. Amirabedi, S. Jafarmadar, and S. Khalilarya, “Experimental investigation the effect of Mn2O3 nanoparticle on the performance and emission of SI gasoline fueled with mixture of ethanol and gasoline,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 149, pp. 512–519, 2019.