Main Article Content
The burning rate of coconut oil droplets has been investigated experimentally by adding bio-additives of clove oil and eucalyptus oil. Tests were carried out with single droplets suspended on thermocouples at room atmospheric pressure, and room temperature and ignited with a hot wire. The addition of clove oil and eucalyptus oil as bio-additives into coconut oil was 100 ppm and 300 ppm, respectively. The droplet combustion method was chosen to increase the contact area between the air and fuel so that the reactivity of the fuel molecules increases. The results showed that the eugenol compounds contained in clove oil and cineol compounds in eucalyptus oil were both aromatic, and had an unsymmetrical carbon chain geometry structure. Furthermore, this factor can potentially accelerate the occurrence of effective collisions between fuel molecules. Therefore the fuel is combustible, as evidenced by the increased burning rate, where the results show that without bio-additives, the burning rate of crude coconut oil (CCO) is about 0.7 seconds. These results are 0.15 to 0.2 seconds slower than CCO with bio-additive, which is around 0.55 to 0.6 seconds. Moreover, from the observations, it was found that the highest burning rate was achieved in both bio-additives with a concentration of 300 ppm.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- S. Chen, A. Kharrazi, S. Liang, B. D. Fath, M. Lenzen, and J. Yan, “Advanced approaches and applications of energy footprints toward the promotion of global sustainability,” Applied Energy, vol. 261, p. 114415, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.APENERGY.2019.114415.
- M. Setiyo, “Alternative fuels for transportation sector in Indonesia,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2022. doi: 10.31603/mesi.6850.
- A. Kolakoti, A. V. Kumar, R. Metta, M. Setiyo, and M. L. Rochman, “Experimental studies on in-cylinder combustion, exergy performance, and exhaust emission in a Compression Ignition engine fuelled with neat biodiesels,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 219–236, 2022.doi: 10.17509/ijost.v7i2.49680.
- A. Sule, Z. A. Latiff, M. A. Abbas, I. Veza, and A. C. Opia, “Recent Advances in Diesel-Biodiesel Blended with Nano-Additive as Fuel in Diesel Engines: A Detailed Review,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 182–216, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.6352.
- R. A. Alenezi, Erdiwansyah, R. Mamat, A. M. Norkhizan, and G. Najafi, “The effect of fusel-biodiesel blends on the emissions and performance of a single cylinder diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 279, no. X, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118438.
- K. Han, Q. Lin, and M. Liu, “Experimental study on the micro-explosion characteristics of biodiesel/1-pentanol and biodiesel/ methanol blended droplets,” Renewable Energy, vol. 196, pp. 261–277, Aug. 2022, doi: 10.1016/J.RENENE.2022.06.104.
- A. Kolakoti, M. Setiyo, and M. L. Rochman, “A Green Heterogeneous Catalyst Production and Characterization for Biodiesel Production using RSM and ANN Approach,” International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 703–712, 2022, doi: 10.14710/ijred.2022.43627.
- S. Supriyadi, P. Purwanto, D. D. Anggoro, and H. Hermawan, “The Effects of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Concentration and Reaction Temperature on The Properties of Biodiesel from Philippine Tung (Reutealis Trisperma) Seeds,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 57–67, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.5986.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, H. Riupassa, and M. Yamaguchi, “Performance and Emissions Analysis of BE85-Gasoline Blends on Spark Ignition Engine,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.6116.
- S. S. Sazhin, “Modelling of fuel droplet heating and evaporation: Recent results and unsolved problems,” Fuel, vol. 196, pp. 69–101, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.01.048.
- H. Y. Nanlohy and Trismawati, “The role of fatty acid of Morinda citrifolia oil as surface-active chemicals on the deinking process of waste paper,” Materialia, vol. 23, p. 101436, Jun. 2022, doi: 10.1016/J.MTLA.2022.101436.
- A. Kolakoti, B. Prasadarao, K. Satyanarayana, M. Setiyo, H. Köten, and M. Raghu, “Elemental, Thermal and Physicochemical Investigation of Novel Biodiesel from Wodyetia Bifurcata and Its Properties Optimization using Artificial Neural Network (ANN),” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.6171.
- I. C. Setiawan and M. Setiyo, “Renewable and Sustainable Green Diesel (D100) for Achieving Net Zero Emission in Indonesia Transportation Sector,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–2, 2022. doi: 10.31603/ae.6895.
- Á. Muelas, P. Remacha, and J. Ballester, “Droplet combustion and sooting characteristics of UCO biodiesel, heating oil and their mixtures under realistic conditions,” Combustion and Flame, vol. 203, pp. 190–203, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2019.02.014.
- M. Setiyo, D. Yuvenda, and O. D. Samuel, “The Concise Latest Report on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Biodiesel (B100) on Engine Performance: Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 469–490, 2021, doi: 10.17509/ijost.v6i3.38430.
- Y. Xu, I. Keresztes, A. M. Condo, D. Phillips, P. Pepiot, and C. T. Avedisian, “Droplet combustion characteristics of algae-derived renewable diesel, conventional #2 diesel, and their mixtures,” Fuel, vol. 167, pp. 295–305, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.11.036.
- R. Kale and R. Banerjee, “Understanding spray and atomization characteristics of butanol isomers and isooctane under engine like hot injector body conditions,” Fuel, vol. 237, pp. 191–201, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2018.09.142.
- H. Aljabri, X. Liu, and Al-lehaibi, “Fuel flexibility potential for isobaric combustion in a compression ignition engine: A computational study,” Fuel, vol. 316, p. 123281, May 2022, doi: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2022.123281.
- Y. C. Liu, Y. Xu, M. C. Hicks, and C. T. Avedisian, “Comprehensive study of initial diameter effects and other observations on convection-free droplet combustion in the standard atmosphere for n-heptane, n-octane, and n-decane,” Combustion and Flame, vol. 171, pp. 27–41, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.05.013.
- M. Plank, G. Wachtmeister, K. Thuneke, E. Remmele, and P. Emberger, “Effect of fatty acid composition on ignition behavior of straight vegetable oils measured in a constant volume combustion chamber apparatus,” Fuel, vol. 207, pp. 293–301, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.089.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, I. N. G. Wardana, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ueda, “The role of rhodium sulfate on the bond angles of triglyceride molecules and their effect on the combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplets,” Fuel, vol. 279, p. 118373, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118373.
- E. Marlina, M. Basjir, and R. D. Purwati, “The Response of Adding Nanocarbon to the Combustion Characteristic of Crude Coconut Oil (CCO) Droplets,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2022, doi: 10.31603/ae.4954.
- E. Marlina, M. Basjir, M. Ichiyanagi, T. Suzuki, G. J. Gotama, and W. Anggono, “The Role of Eucalyptus Oil in Crude Palm Oil As Biodiesel Fuel,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 2020, doi: 10.31603/ae.v3i1.3257.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, I. N. G. Wardana, N. Hamidi, and L. Yuliati, “Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplets using rhodium liquid as a homogeneous combustion catalyst,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, vol. 299, no. 1, p. 12090. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/299/1/012090.
- X. Wang, M. Dai, J. Yan, C. Chen, G. Jiang, and J. Zhang, “Experimental investigation on the evaporation and micro-explosion mechanism of jatropha vegetable oil (JVO) droplets,” Fuel, vol. 258, no. August, p. 115941, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115941.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, I. N. G. Wardana, N. Hamidi, L. Yuliati, and T. Ueda, “The effect of Rh3+ catalyst on the combustion characteristics of crude vegetable oil droplets,” Fuel, vol. 220, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.02.001.
- Wardoyo, A. S. Widodo, W. Wijayanti, and I. N. G. Wardana, “The Role of Areca catechu Extract on Decreasing Viscosity of Vegetable Oils,” Scientific World Journal, vol. 2021, 2021, doi: 10.1155/2021/8827427.
- Suyatno, H. Riupassa, S. Marianingsih, and H. Y. Nanlohy, “Characteristics of SI engine fueled with BE50-Isooctane blends with different ignition timings,” Heliyon, vol. 9, no. 1, p. e12922, Jan. 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.HELIYON.2023.E12922.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, H. Riupassa, T. Trismawati, and M. S. Panithasan, “Gasohol Engine Performance with Various Ignition Timing,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), vol. 6, no. 1, p. 48, 2022, doi: 10.17977/um016v6i12022p048.
- P. Sakthivel, K. A. Subramanian, and R. Mathai, “Experimental study on unregulated emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with ethanol-gasoline blends (E0 to E50),” Fuel, vol. 262, no. August 2019, p. 116504, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116504.
- Z. Liu, P. Sun, Y. Du, X. Yu, W. Dong, and J. Zhou, “Improvement of combustion and emission by combined combustion of ethanol premix and gasoline direct injection in SI engine,” Fuel, vol. 292, no. November 2020, p. 120403, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120403.
- H. Riupassa, Trismawati, and H. Y. Nanlohy, “The Effect of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles as a Metal Based Catalyst on the Ignition Characteristics of Waste Plastic Oil,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2440, no. Icmen 2021, pp. 1–9, 2022, doi: 10.1063/5.0075009.
- P. Pradhan, H. Raheman, and D. Padhee, “Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas,” Fuel, vol. 115, pp. 527–533, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.067.
- H. Y. Nanlohy, “Comparative Studies on Combustion Characteristics of Blended Crude Jatropha Oil with Magnetic Liquid Catalyst and DEX under Normal Gravity Condition,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2021, doi: 10.17977/um016v5i22021p079.
- M. Ikegami, G. Xu, and K. Ikeda, “Distinctive combustion stages of single heavy oil droplet under microgravity,” Fuel, vol. 82, pp. 293–304, 2003.doi: 10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00257-0.
- K. Meng, W. Fu, Y. Lei, D. Zhao, Q. Lin, and G. Wang, “Study on micro-explosion intensity characteristics of biodiesel, RP-3 and ethanol mixed droplets,” Fuel, vol. 256, no. August, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115942.
- H. Y. Nanlohy and H. Riupassa, “An Experimental Study on the Ignition Behavior of Blended Fuels Droplets with Crude Coconut Oil and Liquid Metal Catalyst,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 39–45, 2020. doi: 10.31603/ae.v3i2.3481.