Design and implementation of automatic fish feeder (AFF) using microcontroller powered by solar cell: A Contribution to the fish farmers

Main Article Content

Susilawati Susilawati
Aditya Nugraha
Azhis Sholeh Buchori
Slamet Rahayu
Ferdi Fathurohman
Oyok Yudiyanto


This study aims to design and test an automatic fish feeder (AFF) controlled by a microcontroller with an electricity supply from a solar cell. To build a reliable and accurate system, input data is collected for design, followed by system development, feasibility analysis, and performance testing. The test results show that AFF works according to the settings of the microcontroller, where the servo motor can open and close the feed channel periodically, three times a day. The feeding schedule is set at 07.00, 12.00, and 16.00.  In addition, fundamental indicators including feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed efficiency (FE) are showing positive results. Through the application of AFF which replaces manual feeding, the FCR is obtained at 1.15 from the initial value of 1.44. Meanwhile, FE increased from 69.4% to 86.8%. Technically, AFF is suitable for use by tilapia and carp farmers.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



[1] P. J. G. Henriksson, L. K. Banks, S. K. Suri, T. Y. Pratiwi, N. A. Fatan, and M. Troell, “Indonesian aquaculture futures—identifying interventions for reducing environmental impacts,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 14, no. 12, p. 124062, 2019.
[2] P. J. G. Henriksson et al., “Indonesian aquaculture futures–Evaluating environmental and socioeconomic potentials and limitations,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 162, pp. 1482–1490, 2017.
[3] W. Miao and W. Wang, “Trends of aquaculture production and trade: Carp, tilapia, and shrimp,” Asian Fisheries Science, vol. 33, no. S1, pp. 1–10, 2020.
[4] G. Kumar and C. R. Engle, “Technological advances that led to growth of shrimp, salmon, and tilapia farming,” Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 136–152, 2016.
[5] B. Adeleke, D. Robertson-Andersson, G. Moodley, and S. Taylor, “Aquaculture in Africa: A comparative review of Egypt, Nigeria, and Uganda vis-a-vis South Africa,” Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 167–197, 2020.
[6] A. O. Ogunlela, “Development and performance evaluation of an automatic fish feeder,” in 2014 Montreal, Quebec Canada July 13–July 16, 2014, 2014, p. 1.
[7] H. Volkoff and S. London, “Nutrition and reproduction in fish,” Encyclopedia of reproduction, vol. 2, pp. 1–6, 2018.
[8] C. Wang, Z. Li, T. Wang, X. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Li, “Intelligent fish farm—The future of aquaculture,” Aquaculture International, pp. 1–31, 2021.
[9] E. S. Salau, A. Y. Lawee, G. E. Luka, and D. Bello, “Adoption of improved fisheries technologies by fish farmers in southern agricultural zone of Nasarawa State, Nigeria,” Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 339–346, 2014.
[10] H. Barthà and C. Antoine, “Profitability and sustainability of modern fish farming in Benin: An on-farm experimental appraisal of two production systems of Clarias gariepinus,” Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 243–249, 2017.
[11] J.-V. Lee, J.-L. Loo, Y.-D. Chuah, P.-Y. Tang, Y.-C. Tan, and W.-J. Goh, “The use of vision in a sustainable aquaculture feeding system,” Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 19, pp. 3658–3669, 2013.
[12] S. J. Yeoh, F. S. Taip, J. Endan, R. A. Talib, and M. K. S. Mazlina, “Development of automatic feeding machine for aquaculture industry,” Pertanika J. Sci. & Technol, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 105–110, 2010.
[13] K. Peter, “Development of an automatic fish feeder,” African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 27, 2013.
[14] C. O. Osueke, T. M. A. Olayanju, A. O. Onokwai, and P. Uzendu, “Design and construction of an automatic fish feeder machine,” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1631–1645, 2018.
[15] S. A. B. Saahri, “Design and fabrication of an automatic fish feeding system for home aquarium.” June, 2015.
[16] M. F. Shaari, M. E. I. Zulkefly, M. S. Wahab, and F. Esa, “Aerial fish feeding system,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, 2011, pp. 2135–2140.
[17] M. Z. H. Noor, A. K. Hussian, M. F. Saaid, M. Ali, and M. Zolkapli, “The design and development of automatic fish feeder system using PIC microcontroller,” in 2012 IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium, 2012, pp. 343–347.
[18] M. N. Uddin, “Development of automatic fish feeder,” Global Journals of Research in Engineering, vol. 16, no. A2, pp. 15–23, 2016.
[19] M. Setiyo et al., “Industry 4.0: Challenges of Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2021.
[20] H. C. Wei et al., “Improvement of automatic fish feeder machine design,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2017, vol. 914, no. 1, p. 12041.
[21] H. Istiqlaliyah, “Aplikasi Energi Alternatif Sinar Matahari Pada Mesin Pelontar Pakan Ikan Mandiri Berbasis Microcontroller,” Jurnal Mesin Nusantara, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2022.
[22] A. S. Balaji, P. S. R. VP, and R. K. Kumar, “Automatic fish feeding and monitoring system for aquarium using 555 timers,” Int. J. Tech. Res. Sci, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 20, 2020.
[23] B. A. Md Zain, M. H. M. Jamal, and S. Md Salleh, “Modelling and control of fish feeder system,” in Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, vol. 465, pp. 1314–1318.
[24] M. Dickson, A. Nasr-Allah, D. Kenawy, and F. Kruijssen, “Increasing fish farm profitability through aquaculture best management practice training in Egypt,” Aquaculture, vol. 465, pp. 172–178, 2016.
[25] M. Besson et al., “Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 116, pp. 100–109, 2016.
[26] A. M. Putra and A. B. Pulungan, “Alat Pemberian Pakan Ikan Otomatis,” JTEV (Jurnal Teknik Elektro dan Vokasional), vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–121, 2020.
[27] C. Zhou, D. Xu, K. Lin, C. Sun, and X. Yang, “Intelligent feeding control methods in aquaculture with an emphasis on fish: a review,” Reviews in Aquaculture, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 975–993, 2018.
[28] S. R. Craig, L. A. Helfrich, D. Kuhn, and M. H. Schwarz, “Understanding fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding,” 2017.
[29] A. Chahid, I. N’Doye, J. E. Majoris, M. L. Berumen, and T. M. Laleg-Kirati, “Model predictive control paradigms for fish growth reference tracking in precision aquaculture,” Journal of Process Control, vol. 105, pp. 160–168, 2021.
[30] V. Indriawati, B. S. Rahardja, and Prayogo, “The effectiveness combination of maggot (Hermetia illucens) flour with commercial feed on growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and feed efficiency of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus),” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, vol. 679, no. 1.
[31] A. M. Alshiblawi and M. S. Alkhshali, “Effect of Initial Weight on Production Traits of Common Carp and Rice Cultured Together in Iraq,” Indian Journal of Ecology, vol. 49, no. 19, pp. 167–170, 2022.
[32] M. Fathy, A. Abdel-aziz, H. Ul, and A. Yones, “Assessing the effect of different feeding frequencies combined with stocking density , initial weight , and dietary protein ratio on the growth performance of tilapia, catfish and carp,” Scientific African, vol. 12, p. e00806, 2021.
[33] A. Chiu, L. Li, S. Guo, J. Bai, C. Fedor, and R. Lee, “Feed and fishmeal use in the production of carp and tilapia in China,” Aquaculture, vol. 414–415, pp. 127–134, 2013.

Most read articles by the same author(s)