Main Article Content

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of a resin composition on the performance of brake pads with durian seeds (BDs) as the base material. Experiments were done by attaching saw-milled BD particles to a polymer matrix. Various resin compositions were used for preparing the brake pad, which was then tested (press test, puncture test, and friction test). Physical properties (i.e., particle size, surface roughness, morphology, and density), as well as mechanical properties (ie: hardness, wear rate, and friction coefficient properties), were investigated. Based on observations, the best mechanical properties were found in the highest resin mixture, reaching a compressive strength value of 2.4 MPa. The impact of the homogeneity of the brake pad filler particles is the main reason. The high resin composition causes more cross-links to be formed. This research demonstrates the prospective environmentally friendly and inexpensive brake pads used to replace current products that use hazardous materials.

Keywords

Brake pad Durian seeds Bibliometric Agricultural waste

Article Details

References

  1. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, D. F. Al Husaeni, R. Ragadhita, and T. Kurniawan, “Resin-based Brake Pad from Rice Husk Particles: From Literature Review of Brake Pad from Agricultural Waste to the Techno-Economic Analysis,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 131–149, 2021.
  2. S. Kumar and S. K. Ghosh, “Porosity and tribological performance analysis on new developed metal matrix composite for brake pad materials,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 59, pp. 186–204, 2020.
  3. A. B. D. Nandiyanto et al., “The effects of rice husk particles size as a reinforcement component on resin-based brake pad performance: From literature review on the use of agricultural waste as a reinforcement material, chemical polymerization reaction of epoxy resin, to experiments,” Automotive Experiences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 68–82, 2021.
  4. S. Suhardiman and M. Syaputra, “Analisa keausan kampas rem non asbes terbuat dari komposit polimer serbuk padi dan tempurung kelapa,” INOVTEK POLBENG, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 210–214, 2017.
  5. V. V. Kumar and S. S. Kumaran, “Friction material composite: types of brake friction material formulations and effects of various ingredients on brake performance–a review,” Materials Research Express, vol. 6, no. 8, p. 82005, 2019.
  6. N. A. Ademoh and A. I. Olabisi, “Development and evaluation of maize husks (asbestos-free) based brake pad,” Development, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 67–80, 2015.
  7. M. Li, X. Huo, C. B. Davuljigari, Q. Dai, and X. Xu, “MicroRNAs and their role in environmental chemical carcinogenesis,” Environmental geochemistry and health, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 225–247, 2019.
  8. O. R. Adetunji, A. M. Adedayo, S. O. Ismailia, O. U. Dairo, I. K. Okediran, and O. M. Adesusi, “Effect of silica on the mechanical properties of palm kernel shell based automotive brake pad,” Mechanical Engineering for Society and Industry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2022.
  9. G. Anbu, N. Manirethinam, K. P. Nitish, K. Pavithran, A. Priyadharsan, and S. Sabarigiri, “Review of development of brake pads using sawdust composite,” Journal of Critical Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 2020, 2019.
  10. M. Afolabi, O. K. Abubakre, S. A. Lawal, and A. Raji, “Experimental investigation of palm kernel shell and cow bone reinforced polymer composites for brake pad production,” International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 27–40, 2015.
  11. D. S. Yawas, S. Y. Aku, and S. G. Amaren, “Morphology and properties of periwinkle shell asbestos-free brake pad,” Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2016.
  12. A. I. Olabisi, A. N. Adam, and O. M. Okechukwu, “Development and assessment of composite brake pad using pulverized cocoa beans shells filler,” International Journal of Materials Science and Applications, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 66–78, 2016.
  13. J. Abutu, S. A. Lawal, M. B. Ndaliman, R. A. Lafia-Araga, O. Adedipe, and I. A. Choudhury, “Effects of process parameters on the properties of brake pad developed from seashell as reinforcement material using grey relational analysis,” Engineering science and technology, an international journal, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 787–797, 2018.
  14. D. F. Al Husaeni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Bibliometric Using Vosviewer with Publish or Perish (using Google Scholar data): From Step-by-step Processing for Users to the Practical Examples in the Analysis of Digital Learning Articles in Pre and Post Covid-19 Pandemic,” ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19–46, 2022.
  15. D. F. Al Husaeni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Mapping visualization analysis of computer science research data in 2017-2021 on the google scholar database with vosviewer,” International Journal of Informatics, Information System and Computer Engineering (INJIISCOM), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2022.
  16. D. N. Al Husaeni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “A bibliometric analysis of vocational school keywords using vosviewer,” ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering Education, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2023.
  17. D. N. Al Husaeni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Bibliometric analysis of high school keyword using VOSviewer indexed by google scholar,” Indonesian Journal of Educational Research and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2023.
  18. I. Hamidah, S. Sriyono, and M. N. Hudha, “A Bibliometric analysis of Covid-19 research using VOSviewer,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 2020.
  19. I. B. Mulyawati and D. F. Ramadhan, “Bibliometric and visualized analysis of scientific publications on geotechnics fields,” ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering Education, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2021.
  20. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, D. N. Al Husaeni, and D. F. Al Husaeni, “A bibliometric analysis of chemical engineering research using vosviewer and its correlation with covid-19 pandemic condition,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 4414–4422, 2021.
  21. A. B. D. Nandiyanto and D. F. Al Husaeni, “A bibliometric analysis of materials research in Indonesian journal using VOSviewer,” Journal of Engineering Research, vol. ASSEEE, no. Special Issue, pp. 1–16, 2021.
  22. D. N. Al Husaeni, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, and R. Maryanti, “Bibliometric analysis of special needs education keyword using vosviewer indexed by google scholar,” … Journal of Community and Special Needs …, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2023.
  23. R. Ragadhita and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Computational Bibliometric Analysis on Publication of Techno-Economic Education,” Indonesian Journal of Multidiciplinary Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 213–220, 2022.
  24. M. Setiyo, D. Yuvenda, and O. D. Samuel, “The Concise Latest Report on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Biodiesel (B100) on Engine Performance: Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 469–490, 2021, doi: 10.17509/ijost.v6i3.38430.
  25. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, M. K. Biddinika, and F. Triawan, “How bibliographic dataset portrays decreasing number of scientific publication from Indonesia,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 154–175, 2020.
  26. P. A. Castiblanco, J. L. Ramirez, and A. Rubiano, “Smart materials and their application in robotic hand systems: A state of the art,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 401–426, 2021.
  27. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, M. K. Biddinika, and F. Triawan, “Evaluation on research effectiveness in a subject area among top class universities: a case of Indonesia’s academic publication dataset on chemical and material sciences,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1747–1775, 2020.
  28. D. F. Al Husaeni, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, and R. Maryanti, “Bibliometric analysis of educational research in 2017 to 2021 using VOSviewer: Google scholar indexed research,” Indonesian Journal of Teaching in Science, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2023.
  29. H. Soegoto, E. S. Soegoto, S. Luckyardi, and A. A. Rafdhi, “A Bibliometric Analysis of Management Bioenergy Research Using Vosviewer Application,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 89–104, 2022.
  30. A. S. Nugraha, “Bibliometric Analysis of Magnetite Nanoparticle Production Research During 2017-2021 Using Vosviewer,” Indonesian Journal of Multidiciplinary Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 327–332, 2022.
  31. A. Fauziah, “A Bibliometric Analysis of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Production Research as Drug Delivery System Using VOSviewer,” Indonesian Journal of Multidiciplinary Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 333–338, 2022.
  32. A. P. Shidiq, “A bibliometric analysis of nano metal-organic frameworks synthesis research in medical science using VOSviewer,” ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2023.
  33. E. R. Nugraha and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Bibliometric analysis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis research for photocatalysis using VOSviewer,” Open Soil Science and Environment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2022.
  34. G. S. Maulidah and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “A Bibliometric analysis of nanocrystalline cellulose synthesis for packaging application research using VOSviewer,” International Journal of Research and Applied Technology (INJURATECH), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 330–334, 2021.
  35. A. Aldhafi and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “A Bibliometric Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Research Using Vosviewer,” International Journal of Research and Applied Technology (INJURATECH), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 76–81, 2021.
  36. S. Deni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Bibliometric analysis of nano-sized agricultural waste brake pads research during 2018-2022 using Vosviewer,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2022.
  37. A. B. D. Nandiyanto et al., “Porous activated carbon particles from rice straw waste and their adsorption properties,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1–11, 2017.
  38. R. Ragadhita and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Why 200° C is Effective for Creating Carbon from Organic Waste (from Thermal Gravity (TG-DTA) Perspective)?,” ASEAN Journal for Science and Engineering in Materials, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 75–80, 2022.
  39. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, R. Andika, M. Aziz, and L. S. Riza, “Working volume and milling time on the product size/morphology, product yield, and electricity consumption in the ball-milling process of organic material,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 82–94, 2018.
  40. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, R. Oktiani, and R. Ragadhita, “How to read and interpret FTIR spectroscope of organic material,” Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 97–118, 2019.
  41. C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, F. A. Anene, and C. M. Ewulonu, “A retrofit for asbestos-based brake pad employing palm kernel fiber as the base filler material,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, vol. 233, no. 9, pp. 1906–1913, 2019.
  42. M. A. Jamaludin, M. N. A. M. Taib, M. N. Zakaria, M. A. Kassim, and N. S. Zainuddin, “Non-steady state moisture diffusion flow in homogenous pineapple leaves particleboard,” in Advanced Materials Research, 2013, vol. 774, pp. 279–283.
  43. N. T. Thuong et al., “A Fixed-Bed Column Study for Removal of Organic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Pre-Treated Durian Peel Waste,” Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 486–494, 2019.
  44. R. O. Edokpia, V. S. Aigbodion, C. U. Atuanya, J. O. Agunsoye, and K. Mu’azu, “Experimental study of the properties of brake pad using egg shell particles–Gum Arabic composites,” Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 172–184, 2016.
  45. A. P. Irawan et al., “Overview of the Important Factors Influencing the Performance of Eco-Friendly Brake Pads,” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 1180, 2022.