Utilization of plastic waste to improve properties of road material: A review

Main Article Content

Safety Husna Pangestika
Kushendarsyah Saptaji
Anak Agung Ngurah Perwira Redi
Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto
Surya Danusaputro Liman
Farid Triawan


The failure of asphalt pavement occurs due to heavy traffic loads and weather conditions such as humidity, temperature, and UV radiation. To address or minimize these failures, significant efforts have been made in recent years to improve the properties of asphalt materials, ultimately enhancing field performance, and extending the lifespan of pavements. Asphalt with plastic modification is considered one of the most suitable and popular approaches. Plastic offers several advantages and is generally known to improve stiffness at high temperatures, although some types are more susceptible to phase separation. Therefore, it is necessary to use the right methods, temperatures, and proportions when designing plastic asphalt mixes to produce a homogeneous mixture. Plastic mixing with asphalt blends is done through two methods: the dry mixing method and the wet mixing method. The ideal amount of plastic added to the mix should modify the asphalt blend to make it more resistant to rutting, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, and moisture resistance. Failure to determine the correct plastic dosage can lead to negative effects on pavement performance. In general, incorporating plastic waste into asphalt mixes has shown improvements in performance metrics such as stiffness, resistance to cracking, and fatigue resistance. The result of the asphalt and plastic mixture is an increase in stability, making the mixture stronger in bearing loads. Adding plastic waste to the mix makes it stiffer, resulting in a higher MR value, thus providing better resistance to permanent deformation compared to conventional mixtures. Additionally, in wheel tracking tests, the asphalt-plastic mixture reduced rutting depth by 29% compared to conventional mixtures. Similarly, in fatigue testing, the asphalt-plastic mixture yielded a higher load cycle value, making it more resistant to repeated loads. This article explains the details of using plastic in asphalt mixes to enhance asphalt performance and road durability. Various types of plastics, including PET, HDPE, LDPE, PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS, have been successfully used to modify asphalt. However, each type has its advantages and disadvantages, as discussed comprehensively in this journal. Essentially, the utilization of plastic waste in asphalt blends will help reduce the need for landfill disposal, decrease dependence on non-renewable resources, and expand options for asphalt pavement construction.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



[1] A. Modarres and H. Hamedi, “Developing laboratory fatigue and resilient modulus models for modified asphalt mixes with waste plastic bottles (PET),” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 68, pp. 259–267, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.054.
[2] M. Arabani and M. Pedram, “Laboratory investigation of rutting and fatigue in glassphalt containing waste plastic bottles,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 116, pp. 378–383, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.105.
[3] S. Köfteci, P. Ahmedzade, and B. Kultayev, “Performance evaluation of bitumen modified by various types of waste plastics,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 73, pp. 592–602, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.067.
[4] P. V S. and V. A., “Behavior of Reclaimed Polyethylene Modified Asphalt Cement for Paving Purposes,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 833–845, Jun. 2011, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000235.
[5] Y. Kim and T. S. Park, “Reinforcement of recycled foamed asphalt using short polypropylene fibers,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2013, 2013, doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/903236.
[6] M. Vila-Cortavitarte, P. Lastra-González, M. Á. Calzada-Pérez, and I. Indacoechea-Vega, “Analysis of the influence of using recycled polystyrene as a substitute for bitumen in the behaviour of asphalt concrete mixtures.,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 170, pp. 1279–1287, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.232.
[7] D. F. Al Husaeni and A. B. D. Nandiyanto, “Bibliometric Using Vosviewer with Publish or Perish (using Google Scholar data): From Step-by-step Processing for Users to the Practical Examples in the Analysis of Digital Learning Articles in Pre and Post Covid-19 Pandemic,” ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19–46, 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.17509/ajse.v2i1.37368.
[8] S. Kumar, A. K. Panda, and R. K. Singh, “A review on tertiary recycling of high-density polyethylene to fuel,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 893–910, 2011, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.05.005.
[9] S. Wu and L. Montalvo, “Repurposing waste plastics into cleaner asphalt pavement materials: A critical literature review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 280, p. 124355, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124355.
[10] R. Vasudevan, A. Ramalinga Chandra Sekar, B. Sundarakannan, and R. Velkennedy, “A technique to dispose waste plastics in an ecofriendly way – Application in construction of flexible pavements,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 311–320, 2012, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.08.031.
[11] N. Salman and Z. Jaleel, “Effects of waste PVC addition on the properties of (40-50) grade asphalt,” MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 162, pp. 1–4, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201816201046.
[12] L. Brasileiro, F. Moreno-Navarro, R. Tauste-Martínez, J. Matos, and M. D. Rubio-Gámez, “Reclaimed Polymers as Asphalt Binder Modifiers for More Sustainable Roads: A Review,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 3. 2019, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030646.
[13] A. Hassani, H. Ganjidoust, and A. A. Maghanaki, “Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.,” Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 322–327, Aug. 2005, doi: 10.1177/0734242X05056739.
[14] S. Ullah, M. Raheel, R. Khan, and M. Tariq Khan, “Characterization of physical & mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing low- & high-density polyethylene waste as aggregates,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 301, p. 124127, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124127.
[15] H. A. A. Gibreil and C. P. Feng, “Effects of high-density polyethylene and crumb rubber powder as modifiers on properties of hot mix asphalt,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 142, pp. 101–108, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.062.
[16] B. S. Subagio, R. H. Karsaman, J. Adwang, and I. Fahmi, “Fatigue performance of HRA (hot rolled asphalt) and Superpave® mixes using Indonesian rock asphalt (Asbuton) as fine aggregates and filler,” Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol. 6, pp. 1207–1216, 2005.
[17] W. M. N. W. A. Rahman and A. F. A. Wahab, “Green Pavement using Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Partial Fine Aggregate Replacement in Modified Asphalt,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 53, pp. 124–128, 2013, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.02.018.
[18] E. Ahmadinia, M. Zargar, M. R. Karim, M. Abdelaziz, and E. Ahmadinia, “Performance evaluation of utilization of waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) in stone mastic asphalt,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 36, pp. 984–989, 2012, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.06.015.
[19] A. F. Ahmad, A. R. Razali, I. S. M. Razelan, S. S. A. Jalil, M. S. M. Noh, and A. A. Idris, “Utilization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in bituminous mixture for improved performance of roads,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 203, no. 1, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/203/1/012005.
[20] R. Choudhary, A. Kumar, and K. Murkute, “Properties of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) modified asphalt mixes: Dependence on PET size, PET content, and mixing process,” Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 10797, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.3311/PPci.10797.
[21] P. Mikhailenko, Z. Piao, M. R. Kakar, S. Athari, M. Bueno, and L. D. Poulikakos, “Effect of waste PET and CR as sand replacement on the durability and acoustical properties of semi dense asphalt (SDA) mixtures,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies, vol. 29, p. e00295, 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2021.e00295.
[22] S. Köfteci, “Effect of HDPE Based Wastes on the Performance of Modified Asphalt Mixtures,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 161, pp. 1268–1274, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.567.
[23] S. Hınıslıoğlu and E. Ağar, “Use of waste high density polyethylene as bitumen modifier in asphalt concrete mix,” Materials Letters, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 267–271, 2004, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00458-0.
[24] D. Casey, C. McNally, A. Gibney, and M. D. Gilchrist, “Development of a recycled polymer modified binder for use in stone mastic asphalt,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1167–1174, 2008, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.06.002.
[25] B. Melbouci, S. Sadoun, and A. Bilek, “Study of strengthening of recycled asphalt concrete by plastic aggregates,” International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 280, 2014.
[26] A. Behl, G. Sharma, and G. Kumar, “A sustainable approach: Utilization of waste PVC in asphalting of roads,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 54, pp. 113–117, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.050.
[27] C. Fang, S. Zhou, M. Zhang, and S. Zhao, “Modification of waterproofing asphalt by PVC packaging waste,” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 229–233, Dec. 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/vnl.20204.
[28] M. Arabani and M. Yousefpour Taleghani, “Rutting behavior of hot mix asphalt modified by polyvinyl chloride powder,” Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 1621–1626, Aug. 2017, doi: 10.1080/10916466.2017.1336772.
[29] C. Fang et al., “Viscoelasticity of Asphalt Modified With Packaging Waste Expended Polystyrene,” Journal of Materials Science & Technology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 939–943, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2014.07.016.
[30] U. Bagampadde, D. Kaddu, and B. M. Kiggundu, “Evaluation of Rheology and Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Low Density Polyethylene.,” International Journal of Pavement Research & Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, 2013.
[31] R. Maharaj, C. Maharaj, and A. Hosein, “Performance of Waste Polymer Modified Road Paving Materials,” Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 19–33, Feb. 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/147776061803400102.
[32] J. A. Rincón-Estepa, E. V González-Salcedo, H. A. Rondón-Quintana, F. A. Reyes-Lizcano, and J. G. Bastidas-Martínez, “Mechanical Behavior of Low-Density Polyethylene Waste Modified Hot Mix Asphalt,” Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 7. 2022, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074229.
[33] S. E. Zoorob and L. B. Suparma, “Laboratory design and investigation of the properties of continuously graded Asphaltic concrete containing recycled plastics aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt),” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 233–242, 2000, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(00)00026-3.
[34] A. I. Al-Hadidy and T. Yi-qiu, “Effect of polyethylene on life of flexible pavements,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1456–1464, 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.07.004.
[35] I. Aschuri, A. Yamin, and Y. D. Widyasih, “The use of waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement,” Jurnal Teknik Sipil, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016.
[36] S. M. Abtahi, S. Esfandiarpour, M. Kunt, S. M. Hejazi, and M. G. Ebrahimi, “Hybrid reinforcement of asphalt-concrete mixtures using glass and polypropylene fibers,” Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 25–35, 2013, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/155892501300800203.
[37] S. Moubark, F. Khodary, and A. Othman, “Evaluation of Mechanical properties for polypropylene Modified Asphalt concrete Mixtures,” International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 7797–7801, 2017.
[38] E. Sembiring, H. Rahman, and Y. M. Siswaya, “Utilization of polypropylene to substitute Bitumen for asphalt concrete wearing course (Ac-Wc),” GEOMATE Journal, vol. 14, no. 42, pp. 97–102, 2018.
[39] P. Lastra-González, M. A. Calzada-Pérez, D. Castro-Fresno, Á. Vega-Zamanillo, and I. Indacoechea-Vega, “Comparative analysis of the performance of asphalt concretes modified by dry way with polymeric waste,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 112, pp. 1133–1140, 2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.156.
[40] B. W. Colbert, A. Diab, and Z. You, “Using ME PDG to study the effectiveness of electronic waste materials modification on asphalt pavements design thickness,” International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 319, 2013.
[41] Y. R. Saragi and A. J. Sinaga, “Analisis Lapisan Aspal Beton (AC-BC) Dengan Penambahan Limbah Kaleng Minuman Ditinjau Dari Karakteristik Marshall Dan Uji Penetrasi,” Jurnal Construct, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2021.
[42] P. R. Rangan and J. Bokko, “Pengaruh Penambahan Limbah Aluminium Kemasan Minuman terhadap Karakteristik Lapisan Aspal Beton,” Journal Dynamic Saint, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 831–840, 2019.
[43] A. F. Nugraha, A. J. Naindraputra, C. S. A. L. Gaol, I. Ismojo, and M. Chalid, “Polypropylene-based Multilayer Plastic Waste Utilization on Bitumen Modification for Hot-Mixed Asphalt Application: Preliminary Study,” Journal of Applied Science, Engineering, Technology, and Education, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 157–166, 2022.

Most read articles by the same author(s)